We focused on key aspects of forest governance for biodiversity conservation in implementing new climate change policies. The national forest institutions must be adaptive to identify the existing pitfalls of prior conservation policies to take advantage of new climate change policies. Strengthening roles and technical capacity of national institutions for systematic biodiversity monitoring and carbon stock assessment is required in developing and least developed countries. Community participation needs careful analysis to ensure equitable access of particular social groups to local decision-making processes and to sustain optional livelihoods. The livelihood options around forest reserves or protected areas must be taken into account to enhance forest-based adaptation.