Despite the relatively long history of nursing education, the development of graduate nursing education in the People’s Republic of China is slow compared to western countries. Yet, rapid social changes call for higher quality nursing care. Consequently, the Chinese government has acknowledged the need to upgrade nursing education in China. The first master of nursing program was established in 1992. Since then graduate programs have grown dramatically in the past 17 years and this growth has had a vital impact on nursing development. However, a number of issues have been raised concerning the focus of graduate programs. This article presents a comprehensive description on the current status, problems, and strategies used in graduate nursing education in mainland China.