Growth and survival of termite-piped Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata in northern Australia

Implications for harvest of trees for didgeridoos

Pat Werner, Lynda Prior, Joshua Forner

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    The most common canopy trees in the savannas of northern Australia, Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata are also two of the most common species harvested to make didgeridoos, the traditional musical instrument of northern Australian Aboriginal peoples now experiencing high demand from international markets. Most of the trees of the area naturally have hollow cores, or pipes, due to termite activity, but little is known of the relationships of the cores to size of tree, tree growth or survival. In a wooded savanna of northern Australia, 267 individual trees with known growth and survival rates were cored to determine degree of termite-piping. Generalized linear modelling and multi-model inference showed that frequency of piping increased with diameter (dbh) tree for E. tetrodonta, but >85% of E. miniata trees were piped regardless of dbh. Growth (dbh increment) and survival (4-year) were size-dependent. Survival of both species decreased strongly with degree of piping (pipe ratio). For any given diameter, the growth rate of E. miniata trees was independent of pipe ratio, but for E. tetrodonta trees decreased strongly with pipe ratio. From modelled data, a 10-cm tree with pipe ratio of 0.60 was very vulnerable, growing at 0.0 cm year-1 with 46% survival rate, whereas a 40-cm tree, even with large pipe ratios (0.80), grew 0.05 cm year-1 with 98% survival rate. Traditional methods of tree harvesting remove only those smaller hollow trees that are already suffering low growth rates and are likely to die before reaching maturity, whereas current large-scale commercial methods also remove trees with higher growth and survival rates-those trees most likely to contribute to sustainable tree populations. Incorporating traditional selection and harvest methods into current commercial operations would help ensure longevity of this source of livelihood for indigenous peoples of the region. � 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)328-334
    Number of pages7
    JournalForest Ecology and Management
    Volume256
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

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    Eucalyptus miniata
    Eucalyptus tetrodonta
    termite
    Isoptera
    pipes
    pipe
    survival rate
    piping
    indigenous peoples
    harvest
    savannas
    savanna
    tree cavities
    world markets

    Cite this

    @article{95c4af2707fd430393bd2adb0a96198d,
    title = "Growth and survival of termite-piped Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata in northern Australia: Implications for harvest of trees for didgeridoos",
    abstract = "The most common canopy trees in the savannas of northern Australia, Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata are also two of the most common species harvested to make didgeridoos, the traditional musical instrument of northern Australian Aboriginal peoples now experiencing high demand from international markets. Most of the trees of the area naturally have hollow cores, or pipes, due to termite activity, but little is known of the relationships of the cores to size of tree, tree growth or survival. In a wooded savanna of northern Australia, 267 individual trees with known growth and survival rates were cored to determine degree of termite-piping. Generalized linear modelling and multi-model inference showed that frequency of piping increased with diameter (dbh) tree for E. tetrodonta, but >85{\%} of E. miniata trees were piped regardless of dbh. Growth (dbh increment) and survival (4-year) were size-dependent. Survival of both species decreased strongly with degree of piping (pipe ratio). For any given diameter, the growth rate of E. miniata trees was independent of pipe ratio, but for E. tetrodonta trees decreased strongly with pipe ratio. From modelled data, a 10-cm tree with pipe ratio of 0.60 was very vulnerable, growing at 0.0 cm year-1 with 46{\%} survival rate, whereas a 40-cm tree, even with large pipe ratios (0.80), grew 0.05 cm year-1 with 98{\%} survival rate. Traditional methods of tree harvesting remove only those smaller hollow trees that are already suffering low growth rates and are likely to die before reaching maturity, whereas current large-scale commercial methods also remove trees with higher growth and survival rates-those trees most likely to contribute to sustainable tree populations. Incorporating traditional selection and harvest methods into current commercial operations would help ensure longevity of this source of livelihood for indigenous peoples of the region. � 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
    keywords = "Harvesting, International trade, Mathematical models, Microfluidics, Musical instruments, Pipe, Australia, Canopy trees, Hollow cores, individual trees, International markets, Multi modeling, survival rates, termite activity, Tree growth, Trees (mathematics), commercial activity, commercial species, dead wood, diameter, evergreen forest, forest canopy, growth rate, indigenous population, international trade, longevity, maturation, model test, music, nutrient cycling, savanna, survival, sustainable forestry, termite, timber harvesting, woody plant, Australasia, Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus miniata, Eucalyptus tetrodonta, Isoptera",
    author = "Pat Werner and Lynda Prior and Joshua Forner",
    year = "2008",
    language = "English",
    volume = "256",
    pages = "328--334",
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    Growth and survival of termite-piped Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata in northern Australia : Implications for harvest of trees for didgeridoos. / Werner, Pat; Prior, Lynda; Forner, Joshua.

    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 256, 2008, p. 328-334.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Growth and survival of termite-piped Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata in northern Australia

    T2 - Implications for harvest of trees for didgeridoos

    AU - Werner, Pat

    AU - Prior, Lynda

    AU - Forner, Joshua

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - The most common canopy trees in the savannas of northern Australia, Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata are also two of the most common species harvested to make didgeridoos, the traditional musical instrument of northern Australian Aboriginal peoples now experiencing high demand from international markets. Most of the trees of the area naturally have hollow cores, or pipes, due to termite activity, but little is known of the relationships of the cores to size of tree, tree growth or survival. In a wooded savanna of northern Australia, 267 individual trees with known growth and survival rates were cored to determine degree of termite-piping. Generalized linear modelling and multi-model inference showed that frequency of piping increased with diameter (dbh) tree for E. tetrodonta, but >85% of E. miniata trees were piped regardless of dbh. Growth (dbh increment) and survival (4-year) were size-dependent. Survival of both species decreased strongly with degree of piping (pipe ratio). For any given diameter, the growth rate of E. miniata trees was independent of pipe ratio, but for E. tetrodonta trees decreased strongly with pipe ratio. From modelled data, a 10-cm tree with pipe ratio of 0.60 was very vulnerable, growing at 0.0 cm year-1 with 46% survival rate, whereas a 40-cm tree, even with large pipe ratios (0.80), grew 0.05 cm year-1 with 98% survival rate. Traditional methods of tree harvesting remove only those smaller hollow trees that are already suffering low growth rates and are likely to die before reaching maturity, whereas current large-scale commercial methods also remove trees with higher growth and survival rates-those trees most likely to contribute to sustainable tree populations. Incorporating traditional selection and harvest methods into current commercial operations would help ensure longevity of this source of livelihood for indigenous peoples of the region. � 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    AB - The most common canopy trees in the savannas of northern Australia, Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata are also two of the most common species harvested to make didgeridoos, the traditional musical instrument of northern Australian Aboriginal peoples now experiencing high demand from international markets. Most of the trees of the area naturally have hollow cores, or pipes, due to termite activity, but little is known of the relationships of the cores to size of tree, tree growth or survival. In a wooded savanna of northern Australia, 267 individual trees with known growth and survival rates were cored to determine degree of termite-piping. Generalized linear modelling and multi-model inference showed that frequency of piping increased with diameter (dbh) tree for E. tetrodonta, but >85% of E. miniata trees were piped regardless of dbh. Growth (dbh increment) and survival (4-year) were size-dependent. Survival of both species decreased strongly with degree of piping (pipe ratio). For any given diameter, the growth rate of E. miniata trees was independent of pipe ratio, but for E. tetrodonta trees decreased strongly with pipe ratio. From modelled data, a 10-cm tree with pipe ratio of 0.60 was very vulnerable, growing at 0.0 cm year-1 with 46% survival rate, whereas a 40-cm tree, even with large pipe ratios (0.80), grew 0.05 cm year-1 with 98% survival rate. Traditional methods of tree harvesting remove only those smaller hollow trees that are already suffering low growth rates and are likely to die before reaching maturity, whereas current large-scale commercial methods also remove trees with higher growth and survival rates-those trees most likely to contribute to sustainable tree populations. Incorporating traditional selection and harvest methods into current commercial operations would help ensure longevity of this source of livelihood for indigenous peoples of the region. � 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    KW - Harvesting

    KW - International trade

    KW - Mathematical models

    KW - Microfluidics

    KW - Musical instruments

    KW - Pipe

    KW - Australia

    KW - Canopy trees

    KW - Hollow cores

    KW - individual trees

    KW - International markets

    KW - Multi modeling

    KW - survival rates

    KW - termite activity

    KW - Tree growth

    KW - Trees (mathematics)

    KW - commercial activity

    KW - commercial species

    KW - dead wood

    KW - diameter

    KW - evergreen forest

    KW - forest canopy

    KW - growth rate

    KW - indigenous population

    KW - international trade

    KW - longevity

    KW - maturation

    KW - model test

    KW - music

    KW - nutrient cycling

    KW - savanna

    KW - survival

    KW - sustainable forestry

    KW - termite

    KW - timber harvesting

    KW - woody plant

    KW - Australasia

    KW - Eucalyptus

    KW - Eucalyptus miniata

    KW - Eucalyptus tetrodonta

    KW - Isoptera

    M3 - Article

    VL - 256

    SP - 328

    EP - 334

    JO - Forest Ecology and Management

    JF - Forest Ecology and Management

    SN - 0378-1127

    ER -