The exposure of the Mongolian economy to international trade in the early 1990s has led to its export growth exceeding GDP growth and a dramatic increase in inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI). Although FDI can act as a powerful channel for export expansion in a developing country like Mongolia, improved export performance could also be due to other factors, such as movements in prices, competitive exchange rates and world income. In spite of Mongolia's superior export performance, as yet, no study has been conducted to investigate the determinants of Mongolian export demand and supply. Using a panel data set covering 1995–2012 for the mining, manufacturing and primary sectors, we analyse the determinants of export performance. Empirical results suggest that higher world income, higher prices for Mongolian exports and increased FDI inflows have led to improved export performance in Mongolia. There is no statistical evidence to suggest that trade liberalisation and improved provision of basic infrastructure have had any impact on Mongolia's export expansion.