High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk

Talima Pearson, Heidie Hornstra, Remy Hilsabeck, Lauren Gates, Sonora Olivas, Dawn Birdsell, Carina Hall, Sabrina German, James Cook, Meagan Seymour, Rachael Priestley, Ashley Kondas, Christine Clark Friedman, Erin Price, James Schupp, Cindy Liu, Lance Price, Robert Massung, Gilbert Kersh, Paul S Keim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years.

Results: 
We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8).

Conclusions: 
The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Microbiology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Coxiella burnetii
Milk
Genotype
Q Fever
Livestock
Endocarditis
Feces
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Pneumonia
Fever
Urine
Parturition
DNA
Infection

Cite this

Pearson, T., Hornstra, H., Hilsabeck, R., Gates, L., Olivas, S., Birdsell, D., ... Keim, P. S. (2014). High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk. BMC Microbiology, 14(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-41
Pearson, Talima ; Hornstra, Heidie ; Hilsabeck, Remy ; Gates, Lauren ; Olivas, Sonora ; Birdsell, Dawn ; Hall, Carina ; German, Sabrina ; Cook, James ; Seymour, Meagan ; Priestley, Rachael ; Kondas, Ashley ; Clark Friedman, Christine ; Price, Erin ; Schupp, James ; Liu, Cindy ; Price, Lance ; Massung, Robert ; Kersh, Gilbert ; Keim, Paul S. / High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk. In: BMC Microbiology. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 1. pp. 1-9.
@article{23b0f27d8b714876a34f76f10d348c8f,
title = "High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk",
abstract = "Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years.Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96{\%} of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5{\%} of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8).Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.",
keywords = "DNA, article, Coxiella burnetii, dairy cattle, genotype, host range, milk, nonhuman, prevalence, Q fever, single nucleotide polymorphism, United States, Animalia, Bovinae, Capra, Animals, Cattle, Genetic Variation, Genotype, Goats, Milk, Molecular Epidemiology, Molecular Typing, Prevalence, Q Fever",
author = "Talima Pearson and Heidie Hornstra and Remy Hilsabeck and Lauren Gates and Sonora Olivas and Dawn Birdsell and Carina Hall and Sabrina German and James Cook and Meagan Seymour and Rachael Priestley and Ashley Kondas and {Clark Friedman}, Christine and Erin Price and James Schupp and Cindy Liu and Lance Price and Robert Massung and Gilbert Kersh and Keim, {Paul S}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2180-14-41",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "BMC Microbiology",
issn = "1471-2180",
publisher = "Global Science Books",
number = "1",

}

Pearson, T, Hornstra, H, Hilsabeck, R, Gates, L, Olivas, S, Birdsell, D, Hall, C, German, S, Cook, J, Seymour, M, Priestley, R, Kondas, A, Clark Friedman, C, Price, E, Schupp, J, Liu, C, Price, L, Massung, R, Kersh, G & Keim, PS 2014, 'High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk', BMC Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-41

High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk. / Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie; Hilsabeck, Remy; Gates, Lauren; Olivas, Sonora; Birdsell, Dawn; Hall, Carina; German, Sabrina; Cook, James; Seymour, Meagan; Priestley, Rachael; Kondas, Ashley; Clark Friedman, Christine; Price, Erin; Schupp, James; Liu, Cindy; Price, Lance; Massung, Robert; Kersh, Gilbert; Keim, Paul S.

In: BMC Microbiology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk

AU - Pearson, Talima

AU - Hornstra, Heidie

AU - Hilsabeck, Remy

AU - Gates, Lauren

AU - Olivas, Sonora

AU - Birdsell, Dawn

AU - Hall, Carina

AU - German, Sabrina

AU - Cook, James

AU - Seymour, Meagan

AU - Priestley, Rachael

AU - Kondas, Ashley

AU - Clark Friedman, Christine

AU - Price, Erin

AU - Schupp, James

AU - Liu, Cindy

AU - Price, Lance

AU - Massung, Robert

AU - Kersh, Gilbert

AU - Keim, Paul S

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years.Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8).Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.

AB - Background: Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years.Results: We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8).Conclusions: The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.

KW - DNA

KW - article

KW - Coxiella burnetii

KW - dairy cattle

KW - genotype

KW - host range

KW - milk

KW - nonhuman

KW - prevalence

KW - Q fever

KW - single nucleotide polymorphism

KW - United States

KW - Animalia

KW - Bovinae

KW - Capra

KW - Animals

KW - Cattle

KW - Genetic Variation

KW - Genotype

KW - Goats

KW - Milk

KW - Molecular Epidemiology

KW - Molecular Typing

KW - Prevalence

KW - Q Fever

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2180-14-41

DO - 10.1186/1471-2180-14-41

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - BMC Microbiology

JF - BMC Microbiology

SN - 1471-2180

IS - 1

ER -