High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate

G McGillivray, Susan Anne Skull, G Davie, S Kofoed, A Frydenberg, J Rice, R Cooke, Jonathan Carapetis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation living in higher latitudes. We assessed the pattern of and risk factors for VDD in immigrant East African children living in Melbourne (latitude 37�49' South). Study design: A prospective survey of 232 East African children attending a clinic in Melbourne. Data were collected by questionnaire, medical assessment and laboratory tests. Results: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels (<50 nmol/l) occurred in 87% of children, and VDD (25-OHD <25 nmol/l) in 44%. Risk factors included age <5 years, female gender, increased time in Australia, decreased daylight exposure and winter/spring season. Anaemia (20%), vitamin A deficiency (20%) and iron deficiency (19%) were also identified. Conclusions: Asymptomatic VDD is common in East African immigrant children residing at a temperate latitude. Risk factors for VDD limit endogenous vitamin D production. Screening of immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation for VDD, anaemia, iron and vitamin A deficiency is appropriate. VDD in adolescent females identifies an increased risk of future infants with VDD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1088-1093
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Disease in Childhood
Volume92
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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Vitamin D Deficiency
Climate
Iron
Skin Pigmentation
Vitamin A Deficiency
Anemia
Vitamin D

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McGillivray, G., Skull, S. A., Davie, G., Kofoed, S., Frydenberg, A., Rice, J., ... Carapetis, J. (2007). High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 92(12), 1088-1093.
McGillivray, G ; Skull, Susan Anne ; Davie, G ; Kofoed, S ; Frydenberg, A ; Rice, J ; Cooke, R ; Carapetis, Jonathan. / High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. In: Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2007 ; Vol. 92, No. 12. pp. 1088-1093.
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abstract = "Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation living in higher latitudes. We assessed the pattern of and risk factors for VDD in immigrant East African children living in Melbourne (latitude 37�49' South). Study design: A prospective survey of 232 East African children attending a clinic in Melbourne. Data were collected by questionnaire, medical assessment and laboratory tests. Results: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels (<50 nmol/l) occurred in 87{\%} of children, and VDD (25-OHD <25 nmol/l) in 44{\%}. Risk factors included age <5 years, female gender, increased time in Australia, decreased daylight exposure and winter/spring season. Anaemia (20{\%}), vitamin A deficiency (20{\%}) and iron deficiency (19{\%}) were also identified. Conclusions: Asymptomatic VDD is common in East African immigrant children residing at a temperate latitude. Risk factors for VDD limit endogenous vitamin D production. Screening of immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation for VDD, anaemia, iron and vitamin A deficiency is appropriate. VDD in adolescent females identifies an increased risk of future infants with VDD.",
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McGillivray, G, Skull, SA, Davie, G, Kofoed, S, Frydenberg, A, Rice, J, Cooke, R & Carapetis, J 2007, 'High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate', Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1088-1093.

High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. / McGillivray, G; Skull, Susan Anne; Davie, G; Kofoed, S; Frydenberg, A; Rice, J; Cooke, R; Carapetis, Jonathan.

In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol. 92, No. 12, 2007, p. 1088-1093.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate

AU - McGillivray, G

AU - Skull, Susan Anne

AU - Davie, G

AU - Kofoed, S

AU - Frydenberg, A

AU - Rice, J

AU - Cooke, R

AU - Carapetis, Jonathan

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N2 - Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation living in higher latitudes. We assessed the pattern of and risk factors for VDD in immigrant East African children living in Melbourne (latitude 37�49' South). Study design: A prospective survey of 232 East African children attending a clinic in Melbourne. Data were collected by questionnaire, medical assessment and laboratory tests. Results: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels (<50 nmol/l) occurred in 87% of children, and VDD (25-OHD <25 nmol/l) in 44%. Risk factors included age <5 years, female gender, increased time in Australia, decreased daylight exposure and winter/spring season. Anaemia (20%), vitamin A deficiency (20%) and iron deficiency (19%) were also identified. Conclusions: Asymptomatic VDD is common in East African immigrant children residing at a temperate latitude. Risk factors for VDD limit endogenous vitamin D production. Screening of immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation for VDD, anaemia, iron and vitamin A deficiency is appropriate. VDD in adolescent females identifies an increased risk of future infants with VDD.

AB - Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation living in higher latitudes. We assessed the pattern of and risk factors for VDD in immigrant East African children living in Melbourne (latitude 37�49' South). Study design: A prospective survey of 232 East African children attending a clinic in Melbourne. Data were collected by questionnaire, medical assessment and laboratory tests. Results: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels (<50 nmol/l) occurred in 87% of children, and VDD (25-OHD <25 nmol/l) in 44%. Risk factors included age <5 years, female gender, increased time in Australia, decreased daylight exposure and winter/spring season. Anaemia (20%), vitamin A deficiency (20%) and iron deficiency (19%) were also identified. Conclusions: Asymptomatic VDD is common in East African immigrant children residing at a temperate latitude. Risk factors for VDD limit endogenous vitamin D production. Screening of immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation for VDD, anaemia, iron and vitamin A deficiency is appropriate. VDD in adolescent females identifies an increased risk of future infants with VDD.

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