Chloroquine (CQ) treatment of CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of post-treatment gametocytaemia which has been linked to the preferential transmission of CQ-resistant parasites. It is not known whether treatment failure (TF) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is associated with the same higher prevalence of gametocytaemia as that seen with CQ TF. Using 1997 WHO in-vivo drug efficacy protocols for malaria, we therefore compared (in a study in 1999) the frequency of gametocytaemia in those with TF to the frequency seen in those with an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) following treatment with one of 3 regimens in Papua, Indonesia: SP monotherapy (n = 87; TF 20.7%), CQ monotherapy (n = 48; TF 83.3%), and the combination of CQ plus SP (n = 34; TF 38.2%). Following SP, day 7 prevalence was significantly higher in those with TF (67%) than with ACPR (38%, P = 0.03). Following combination treatment with CQ+SP, the day 14 gametocyte prevalence was significantly higher in those with TF (100% vs 38%, P = 0.016). The higher prevalence of SP TF-associated gametocytaemia may contribute to increased transmission of antifolate-resistant strains, and further cautions against the use of SP as monotherapy. Adding SP to CQ, after significant resistance has emerged to both drugs, may not prevent enhanced transmission of dual-resistant strains and progression of anti-folate resistance.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene|
|Publication status||Published - 2002|