Higher gametocyte prevalence following failure of treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the combination of chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine: Implications for progression of anti-folate resistance

Emiliana Tjitra, Sri Suprianto, Nicholas M. Anstey

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32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Chloroquine (CQ) treatment of CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of post-treatment gametocytaemia which has been linked to the preferential transmission of CQ-resistant parasites. It is not known whether treatment failure (TF) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is associated with the same higher prevalence of gametocytaemia as that seen with CQ TF. Using 1997 WHO in-vivo drug efficacy protocols for malaria, we therefore compared (in a study in 1999) the frequency of gametocytaemia in those with TF to the frequency seen in those with an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) following treatment with one of 3 regimens in Papua, Indonesia: SP monotherapy (n = 87; TF 20.7%), CQ monotherapy (n = 48; TF 83.3%), and the combination of CQ plus SP (n = 34; TF 38.2%). Following SP, day 7 prevalence was significantly higher in those with TF (67%) than with ACPR (38%, P = 0.03). Following combination treatment with CQ+SP, the day 14 gametocyte prevalence was significantly higher in those with TF (100% vs 38%, P = 0.016). The higher prevalence of SP TF-associated gametocytaemia may contribute to increased transmission of antifolate-resistant strains, and further cautions against the use of SP as monotherapy. Adding SP to CQ, after significant resistance has emerged to both drugs, may not prevent enhanced transmission of dual-resistant strains and progression of anti-folate resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)434-437
Number of pages4
JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume96
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Jakarta, Indonesia, for support and assistance with this study. Financial support was provided by Northern Territory Government 50th Anniversary of Indonesian Independence Research Fellowships, Mark Nicholson, Alice Hill, and the Tudor Foundation.

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