Background: This study investigated the immunogenicity and impact on nasopharyngeal carriage of a single dose of PCV10 given to 18-month-old Vietnamese children. This information is important for countries considering catch-up vaccination during PCV introduction and in the context of vaccination during humanitarian crises. Methods: Two groups of PCV-naïve children within the Vietnam Pneumococcal Project received PCV10 (n=197) or no PCV (unvaccinated; n=199) at 18 months of age. Blood samples were collected at 18, 19, and 24 months of age, and nasopharyngeal swabs at 18 and 24 months of age. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring serotype-specific IgG, opsonophagocytosis (OPA) and memory B cells (Bmem). Pneumococci were detected and quantified using real-time PCR and serotyped by microarray. Findings: At 19 months of age, IgG and OPA responses were higher in the PCV10 group compared with the unvaccinated group for all PCV10 serotypes and cross-reactive serotypes 6A and 19A. This was sustained out to 24 months of age, at which point PCV10-type carriage was 60% lower in the PCV10 group than the unvaccinated group. Bmem levels increased between 18 and 24 months of age in the vaccinated group. Interpretation: We demonstrate strong protective immune responses in vaccinees following a single dose of PCV10 at 18 months of age, and a potential impact on herd protection through a substantial reduction in vaccine-type carriage. A single dose of PCV10 in the second year of life could be considered as part of catch-up campaigns or in humanitarian crises to protect children at high-risk of pneumococcal disease.