Cytokines influence the biological behaviour of prostate cancer (PC) and may influence patient outcome and serve as useful prognostic biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cytokine expression levels in prostatic needle biopsy specimens and the association with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with PC. A total of 18 patients with PC who underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy were included in the clinical study. These patients were naïve to radiotherapy (RT) or androgen deprivation therapy prior to TRUS biopsy and clinical follow up data was collected. Cytokine expression levels were analysed by using immunohistochemistry and Spearman's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between cytokine expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6 decreased as Gleason score (GS) increased; however, a statistically significant difference was not detected. A statically significant correlation was observed between needle biopsy specimen and pre-RT plasma sample expression levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6 (P=0.01 and P=0.05, respectively) and anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 (P=0.05). However, further studies are needed to confirm these results using a larger sample size to confirm the prognostic value of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6 and anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 in patients with PC.