Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay

Thuyet Bui, Jim Luong-Van, Chris Austin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. 
    Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC) and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF). Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N), Total Phosphorus (TP), Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were determined using standard methods. 
    Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. 
    Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable and if the highly valued marine ecosystem of Ha Long Bay is to be protected for the future. 
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)104-116
    Number of pages13
    JournalAmerican Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Volume8
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012

    Fingerprint

    Farms
    Water quality
    Effluents
    farm
    effluent
    water quality
    Biochemical oxygen demand
    Nitrogen
    Chemical oxygen demand
    Chlorophyll
    biochemical oxygen demand
    chemical oxygen demand
    nitrogen
    Phosphorus
    Ammonia
    chlorophyll a
    Aquatic ecosystems
    ammonia
    phosphorus
    Nutrients

    Cite this

    @article{8a9003f2d8e041d29905fc1ac87429a7,
    title = "Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay",
    abstract = "Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC) and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF). Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N), Total Phosphorus (TP), Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable and if the highly valued marine ecosystem of Ha Long Bay is to be protected for the future. ",
    keywords = "aquaculture effluent, bay, coastal zone, concentration (composition), decision making, environmental impact assessment, environmental protection, eutrophication, industrial waste, marine ecosystem, physicochemical property, principal component analysis, shrimp culture, spatial analysis, sustainability, sustainable development, water quality, World Heritage Site, Ha Long Bay, Viet Nam, Decapoda (Crustacea)",
    author = "Thuyet Bui and Jim Luong-Van and Chris Austin",
    year = "2012",
    doi = "10.3844/ajessp.2012.104.116",
    language = "English",
    volume = "8",
    pages = "104--116",
    journal = "American Journal of Environmental Sciences",
    issn = "1553-345X",
    publisher = "Science publications",
    number = "2",

    }

    Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay. / Bui, Thuyet; Luong-Van, Jim; Austin, Chris.

    In: American Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2012, p. 104-116.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay

    AU - Bui, Thuyet

    AU - Luong-Van, Jim

    AU - Austin, Chris

    PY - 2012

    Y1 - 2012

    N2 - Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC) and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF). Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N), Total Phosphorus (TP), Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable and if the highly valued marine ecosystem of Ha Long Bay is to be protected for the future. 

    AB - Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC) and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF). Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N), Total Phosphorus (TP), Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable and if the highly valued marine ecosystem of Ha Long Bay is to be protected for the future. 

    KW - aquaculture effluent

    KW - bay

    KW - coastal zone

    KW - concentration (composition)

    KW - decision making

    KW - environmental impact assessment

    KW - environmental protection

    KW - eutrophication

    KW - industrial waste

    KW - marine ecosystem

    KW - physicochemical property

    KW - principal component analysis

    KW - shrimp culture

    KW - spatial analysis

    KW - sustainability

    KW - sustainable development

    KW - water quality

    KW - World Heritage Site

    KW - Ha Long Bay

    KW - Viet Nam

    KW - Decapoda (Crustacea)

    U2 - 10.3844/ajessp.2012.104.116

    DO - 10.3844/ajessp.2012.104.116

    M3 - Article

    VL - 8

    SP - 104

    EP - 116

    JO - American Journal of Environmental Sciences

    JF - American Journal of Environmental Sciences

    SN - 1553-345X

    IS - 2

    ER -