Methods: In an open label, allocation concealed, outcome-assessor blinded, randomised controlled trial conducted in the Northern Territory of Australia, healthy Indigenous women aged 17–39 years were randomised to receive the 23vPPV during pregnancy (n = 75; 30–36 weeks gestation), at birth (n = 75), or at 7 months post-partum (n = 77). Randomisation was stratified by community of residence. In a secondary analysis, we compared the incidence of ALRI hospitalisations and ALRI clinic presentations (ascertained from electronic medical records) among infants of pregnancy vaccinees versus infants of mothers not vaccinated in pregnancy (controls) in the first year of life.
Results: ALRI hospitalisation incidence was 12.3 per 100 child-years among infants of pregnancy vaccinees compared with 15.8 per 100 child-years among controls (hazard ratio (HR) 0.77, 95%CI 0.29–2.03). ALRI hospitalisations were more common among remote compared to urban infants (27.7 versus 8.6 per 100 child-years). Stratification by dwelling highlighted a differential antenatal vaccine effect against ALRI hospitalisations (urban HR 2.45, 95%CI 0.60–9.99; remote HR 0.21, 95%CI 0.04–1.08). ALRI clinic presentation incidence was similar among infants of pregnancy vaccinees and controls.
Conclusions: In this small study, antenatal 23vPPV vaccination was not associated with a reduced incidence of infant ALRI hospitalisations or ALRI clinic presentations during the first year of life. A potential differential effect between urban and remote settings warrants further investigation.