Indigenous Australians experience a greater burden of cancer than other Australians, but there is little systematic information about their experiences of cancer care. Patient-centred care is increasingly recognised as one of the core domains of quality care, alongside clinical effectiveness and patient safety. Qualitative studies have identified significant issues relating to Indigenous patients' experiences of cancer care, but these data are often insufficient to inform and evaluate health service improvement. We need to establish appropriate methods that will lead to systematic, routinely collected, accurate, population-based data on the experiences of care of Indigenous people with cancer, and determine how best to translate these data into improvements in the delivery of care to this population. Genuine Indigenous leadership and involvement will be necessary, with the whole approach underpinned by the primary aim of improving health outcomes for this population.