Since March 2020 in Australia, there has been decisive national, and state and territory policy as well as community led action involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as information about COVID-19 arose. This has resulted in, what could only be framed as a success story in self-determination. However, there continues to be issues with the quality of data used for the surveillance and reporting of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during the pandemic. This article discusses some of the important events in pandemic planning regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and how this relates to surveillance and monitoring in the emerging and ongoing threat of COVID-19 within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The authors also identify some of the data considerations required in the future to monitor and address public health.