Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

Kate Mounsey, Cielo Pasay, Larry Arlian, Marjorie Morgan, Deborah Holt, Bart Currie, Shelley Faye Walton, James McCarthy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Background. Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results. Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide nave mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to nave mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis-mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. � 2010 Mounsey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)43-43
    Number of pages1
    JournalParasites and Vectors
    Volume3
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

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    Acaricides
    Scabies
    Permethrin
    Sarcoptes scabiei
    Mites
    Glutathione Transferase
    Ivermectin
    diethyl maleate
    P-Glycoprotein
    Messenger RNA
    Survival

    Cite this

    Mounsey, K., Pasay, C., Arlian, L., Morgan, M., Holt, D., Currie, B., ... McCarthy, J. (2010). Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites. Parasites and Vectors, 3, 43-43.
    Mounsey, Kate ; Pasay, Cielo ; Arlian, Larry ; Morgan, Marjorie ; Holt, Deborah ; Currie, Bart ; Walton, Shelley Faye ; McCarthy, James. / Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites. In: Parasites and Vectors. 2010 ; Vol. 3. pp. 43-43.
    @article{e58cefc418c84c318616914027e2ce1c,
    title = "Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites",
    abstract = "Background. Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5{\%} permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results. Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide nave mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to nave mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis-mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. � 2010 Mounsey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.",
    keywords = "acaricide, glutathione transferase, glycoprotein P, ivermectin, maleic acid diethyl ester, messenger RNA, permethrin, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic sensitivity, article, controlled study, detoxification, drug exposure, drug metabolism, enzyme activity, enzyme assay, female, genetic transcription, in vitro study, mite, nonhuman, nucleotide sequence, Sarcoptes scabiei, scabies, Acari, Canis, Psoroptes cervinus, Sarcoptes scabiei type hominis",
    author = "Kate Mounsey and Cielo Pasay and Larry Arlian and Marjorie Morgan and Deborah Holt and Bart Currie and Walton, {Shelley Faye} and James McCarthy",
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    Mounsey, K, Pasay, C, Arlian, L, Morgan, M, Holt, D, Currie, B, Walton, SF & McCarthy, J 2010, 'Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites', Parasites and Vectors, vol. 3, pp. 43-43.

    Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites. / Mounsey, Kate; Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Walton, Shelley Faye; McCarthy, James.

    In: Parasites and Vectors, Vol. 3, 2010, p. 43-43.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

    AU - Mounsey, Kate

    AU - Pasay, Cielo

    AU - Arlian, Larry

    AU - Morgan, Marjorie

    AU - Holt, Deborah

    AU - Currie, Bart

    AU - Walton, Shelley Faye

    AU - McCarthy, James

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Background. Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results. Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide nave mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to nave mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis-mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. � 2010 Mounsey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    AB - Background. Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results. Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide nave mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to nave mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis-mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. � 2010 Mounsey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    KW - acaricide

    KW - glutathione transferase

    KW - glycoprotein P

    KW - ivermectin

    KW - maleic acid diethyl ester

    KW - messenger RNA

    KW - permethrin

    KW - antibiotic resistance

    KW - antibiotic sensitivity

    KW - article

    KW - controlled study

    KW - detoxification

    KW - drug exposure

    KW - drug metabolism

    KW - enzyme activity

    KW - enzyme assay

    KW - female

    KW - genetic transcription

    KW - in vitro study

    KW - mite

    KW - nonhuman

    KW - nucleotide sequence

    KW - Sarcoptes scabiei

    KW - scabies

    KW - Acari

    KW - Canis

    KW - Psoroptes cervinus

    KW - Sarcoptes scabiei type hominis

    M3 - Article

    VL - 3

    SP - 43

    EP - 43

    JO - Parasites and Vectors

    JF - Parasites and Vectors

    SN - 1756-3305

    ER -