Despite high levels of poverty in Indigenous Australian communities, workforce participation is low for the few jobs available. Our research showed that, in contrast, there was a high level of interest in involvement in wildlife-based industries. Young men were particularly interested in animal-based industries whereas involvement in plant-based industries was more likely among middle-aged people of both sexes. People who had employment as land and sea managers ('rangers') were more likely than others to express interest in enterprise involvement. Importantly the level and type of interest differed between communities, reflecting differences in history and culture. The results, which are the first documentation of a quantitative analysis of Australian Indigenous peoples' interest in wildlife-based enterprises, suggest that this is considered far more desirable than involvement in other types of work that might be available. It also suggests that any programmes facilitating such enterprises need to be tailored to the community for which they are being designed.