Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia

A case-control study

Matthew Grigg, Jonathan Cox, Timothy WILLIAM, Jenarun Jelip, Kimberly M. Fornace, Patrick M Brock, Lorenz von Seidlein,, Bridget Barber, Nicholas Anstey, Tsin Yeo, Christopher J. Drakeley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk. 


Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases. 


Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95% CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk. 


Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e97-e104
Number of pages8
JournalThe Lancet Planetary Health
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017

Fingerprint

Plasmodium knowlesi
Plasmodium malariae
Malaysia
Malaria
Case-Control Studies
agricultural area
Southeast Asia
Infection
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
environmental factors
occupation
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
land use
village
public health
logistics
travel
Southeastern Asia
district

Cite this

Grigg, Matthew ; Cox, Jonathan ; WILLIAM, Timothy ; Jelip, Jenarun ; Fornace, Kimberly M. ; Brock, Patrick M ; von Seidlein, Lorenz ; Barber, Bridget ; Anstey, Nicholas ; Yeo, Tsin ; Drakeley, Christopher J. / Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia : A case-control study. In: The Lancet Planetary Health. 2017 ; Vol. 1, No. 3. pp. e97-e104.
@article{621d8c8d395c49d580e941722072af88,
title = "Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia: A case-control study",
abstract = "Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk.  Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases.  Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95{\%} CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95{\%} CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95{\%} CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk.  Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.",
author = "Matthew Grigg and Jonathan Cox and Timothy WILLIAM and Jenarun Jelip and Fornace, {Kimberly M.} and Brock, {Patrick M} and {von Seidlein,}, Lorenz and Bridget Barber and Nicholas Anstey and Tsin Yeo and Drakeley, {Christopher J.}",
year = "2017",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30031-1",
language = "English",
volume = "1",
pages = "e97--e104",
journal = "The Lancet Planetary Health",
issn = "2542-5196",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia : A case-control study. / Grigg, Matthew; Cox, Jonathan; WILLIAM, Timothy; Jelip, Jenarun; Fornace, Kimberly M.; Brock, Patrick M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Barber, Bridget; Anstey, Nicholas; Yeo, Tsin; Drakeley, Christopher J.

In: The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol. 1, No. 3, 06.2017, p. e97-e104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia

T2 - A case-control study

AU - Grigg, Matthew

AU - Cox, Jonathan

AU - WILLIAM, Timothy

AU - Jelip, Jenarun

AU - Fornace, Kimberly M.

AU - Brock, Patrick M

AU - von Seidlein,, Lorenz

AU - Barber, Bridget

AU - Anstey, Nicholas

AU - Yeo, Tsin

AU - Drakeley, Christopher J.

PY - 2017/6

Y1 - 2017/6

N2 - Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk.  Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases.  Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95% CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk.  Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.

AB - Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk.  Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases.  Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95% CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk.  Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85042939038&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30031-1

DO - 10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30031-1

M3 - Article

VL - 1

SP - e97-e104

JO - The Lancet Planetary Health

JF - The Lancet Planetary Health

SN - 2542-5196

IS - 3

ER -