Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia

A case-control study

Matthew Grigg, Jonathan Cox, Timothy WILLIAM, Jenarun Jelip, Kimberly M. Fornace, Patrick M Brock, Lorenz von Seidlein,, Bridget Barber, Nicholas Anstey, Tsin Yeo, Christopher J. Drakeley

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk. 


    Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases. 


    Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95% CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk. 


    Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)e97-e104
    Number of pages8
    JournalThe Lancet Planetary Health
    Volume1
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017

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    Plasmodium knowlesi
    Plasmodium malariae
    Malaysia
    Malaria
    Case-Control Studies
    agricultural area
    Southeast Asia
    Infection
    Logistic Models
    Odds Ratio
    environmental factors
    occupation
    Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
    land use
    village
    public health
    logistics
    travel
    Southeastern Asia
    district

    Cite this

    Grigg, Matthew ; Cox, Jonathan ; WILLIAM, Timothy ; Jelip, Jenarun ; Fornace, Kimberly M. ; Brock, Patrick M ; von Seidlein, Lorenz ; Barber, Bridget ; Anstey, Nicholas ; Yeo, Tsin ; Drakeley, Christopher J. / Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia : A case-control study. In: The Lancet Planetary Health. 2017 ; Vol. 1, No. 3. pp. e97-e104.
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    title = "Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia: A case-control study",
    abstract = "Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk.  Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases.  Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95{\%} CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95{\%} CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95{\%} CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk.  Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.",
    author = "Matthew Grigg and Jonathan Cox and Timothy WILLIAM and Jenarun Jelip and Fornace, {Kimberly M.} and Brock, {Patrick M} and {von Seidlein,}, Lorenz and Bridget Barber and Nicholas Anstey and Tsin Yeo and Drakeley, {Christopher J.}",
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    Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia : A case-control study. / Grigg, Matthew; Cox, Jonathan; WILLIAM, Timothy; Jelip, Jenarun; Fornace, Kimberly M.; Brock, Patrick M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Barber, Bridget; Anstey, Nicholas; Yeo, Tsin; Drakeley, Christopher J.

    In: The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol. 1, No. 3, 06.2017, p. e97-e104.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia

    T2 - A case-control study

    AU - Grigg, Matthew

    AU - Cox, Jonathan

    AU - WILLIAM, Timothy

    AU - Jelip, Jenarun

    AU - Fornace, Kimberly M.

    AU - Brock, Patrick M

    AU - von Seidlein,, Lorenz

    AU - Barber, Bridget

    AU - Anstey, Nicholas

    AU - Yeo, Tsin

    AU - Drakeley, Christopher J.

    PY - 2017/6

    Y1 - 2017/6

    N2 - Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk.  Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases.  Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95% CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk.  Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.

    AB - Background: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk.  Methods: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases.  Findings: From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09–8·29, p<0·0001), male gender (4·20, 2·54–6·97, p<0·0001), plantation work (3·50, CI, 1·34–9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48–8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45–4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91–5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33–3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07–3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11–3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25–3·46, p=0·0048) increased risk for P knowlesi infection but not other Plasmodium spp infection. G6PD deficiency seemed to be protective against P knowlesi (aOR 0·20, 95% CI 0·04–0·96, p=0·045), as did residual insecticide spraying of household walls (0·52, 0·31–0·87, p=0·014), with the presence of young sparse forest (0·35, 0·20–0·63, p=00040) and rice paddy around the house (0·16, 0·03–0·78, 0·023) also associated with decreased risk.  Interpretation: Adult men working in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions.

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