In order to meet the soaring demand for food, there is a need to increase rice and fish production in Bangladesh. In spite of the potential for rice-fish farming, rice monoculture remains the main farming system in Bangladesh. However, rice monoculture cannot provide a sustainable food supply without a cost to long-term environmental sustainability. We provide evidence that integrated rice-fish farming can play an important role in increasing food production as the integrated farming system is better than rice monoculture in terms of resource utilization, diversity, productivity, and both the quality and quantity of the food produced. The Cobb-Douglas production function model also suggests that higher yields can be achieved by increasing inputs in the integrated farming system. Integrated rice-fish farming also provides various socioeconomic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, only a small number of farmers are involved in integrated rice-fish farming due to a lack of technical knowledge, and an aversion to the risks associated with flood and drought. We conclude that integrated rice-fish farming can help Bangladesh keep pace with the current demand for food through rice and fish production but requires greater encouragement if it is to realize its full potential. � 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. & International Society for Plant Pathology.