The role played by key community representatives in the evaluation of community alcohol projects differs according to the evaluation paradigm adopted. In evaluations that adopt a positivist, experimental design they are cast in the role of independent informants. In post-positivist evaluations they are seen as having an interest in the evaluation and accordingly are considered active stakeholders. However, the degree to which stakeholders can be actively engaged in an evaluation varies considerably along a number of dimensions. Four dimensions of the stakeholder role—stakeholder inclusiveness, participation mode, participation frequency, and evaluation role—are examined in the context of eight evaluation theories. This is integrated into a model that links these dimensions to an object-subject continuum of stakeholder involvement. The model facilitates systematic consideration of these dimensions and will assist evaluators in achieving their desired balance of subjective insight and objective fact.
Boots, K., & Midford, R. (2007). Involving stakeholders in the evaluation of community alcohol projects: finding a balance between subjective insight and objective facts. Substance Use and Misuse, 42(12), 1955-1969. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701723887