Iodine status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Top End, before and after mandatory fortification

Gurmeet R. Singh, Belinda Davison, Gary Y. Ma, Creswell J. Eastman, Dorothy Em Mackerras

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Objective: To assess the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of young adults in the Top End of Northern Territory, before and after fortification of bread with iodised salt became mandatory.

    Design, setting: Analysis of cross-sectional data from two longitudinal studies, the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and the non-Indigenous Top End Cohort, pre- (Indigenous participants: 2006-2007; non-Indigenous participants: 2007-2009) and post-fortification (2013-15).

    Participants: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian young adults (mean age: pre-fortification, 17.9 years (standard deviation [SD], 1.20 years); post-fortification, 24.9 years (SD, 1.34 years).

    Main outcome measures: Median UIC (spot urine samples analysed by a reference laboratory), by Indigenous status, remoteness of residence, and sex. RESULTS: Among the 368 participants assessed both pre- and post-fortification, the median UIC increased from 58 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 35-83 μg/L) pre-fortification to 101 μg/L (IQR, 66-163 μg/L) post-fortification (P < 0.001). Urban Indigenous (median IUC, 127 μg/L; IQR, 94-203 μg/L) and non-Indigenous adults (117 μg/L; IQR, 65-160 μg/L) were both iodine-replete post-fortification. The median UIC of remote Indigenous residents increased from 53 μg/L (IQR, 28-75 μg/L) to 94 μg/L (IQR, 63-152 μg/L; p < 0.001); that is, still mildly iodine-deficient. The pre-fortification median UIC for 22 pregnant women was 48 μg/L (IQR, 36-67 μg/L), the post-fortification median UIC for 24 pregnant women 93 μg/L (IQR, 62-171 μg/L); both values were considerably lower than the recommended minimum of 150 μg/L for pregnant women.

    Conclusions: The median UIC of young NT adults increased following mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. The median UIC of pregnant Indigenous women in remote locations, however, remains low, and targeted interventions are needed to ensure healthy fetal development.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)121-125
    Number of pages5
    JournalThe Medical journal of Australia
    Volume210
    Issue number3
    Early online date7 Dec 2018
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

    Fingerprint

    Iodine
    Young Adult
    Urine
    Pregnant Women
    Bread
    Northern Territory
    Fetal Development
    Longitudinal Studies
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
    Parturition

    Cite this

    Singh, Gurmeet R. ; Davison, Belinda ; Ma, Gary Y. ; Eastman, Creswell J. ; Mackerras, Dorothy Em. / Iodine status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Top End, before and after mandatory fortification. In: The Medical journal of Australia. 2019 ; Vol. 210, No. 3. pp. 121-125.
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    title = "Iodine status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Top End, before and after mandatory fortification",
    abstract = "Objective: To assess the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of young adults in the Top End of Northern Territory, before and after fortification of bread with iodised salt became mandatory. Design, setting: Analysis of cross-sectional data from two longitudinal studies, the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and the non-Indigenous Top End Cohort, pre- (Indigenous participants: 2006-2007; non-Indigenous participants: 2007-2009) and post-fortification (2013-15). Participants: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian young adults (mean age: pre-fortification, 17.9 years (standard deviation [SD], 1.20 years); post-fortification, 24.9 years (SD, 1.34 years). Main outcome measures: Median UIC (spot urine samples analysed by a reference laboratory), by Indigenous status, remoteness of residence, and sex. RESULTS: Among the 368 participants assessed both pre- and post-fortification, the median UIC increased from 58 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 35-83 μg/L) pre-fortification to 101 μg/L (IQR, 66-163 μg/L) post-fortification (P < 0.001). Urban Indigenous (median IUC, 127 μg/L; IQR, 94-203 μg/L) and non-Indigenous adults (117 μg/L; IQR, 65-160 μg/L) were both iodine-replete post-fortification. The median UIC of remote Indigenous residents increased from 53 μg/L (IQR, 28-75 μg/L) to 94 μg/L (IQR, 63-152 μg/L; p < 0.001); that is, still mildly iodine-deficient. The pre-fortification median UIC for 22 pregnant women was 48 μg/L (IQR, 36-67 μg/L), the post-fortification median UIC for 24 pregnant women 93 μg/L (IQR, 62-171 μg/L); both values were considerably lower than the recommended minimum of 150 μg/L for pregnant women. Conclusions: The median UIC of young NT adults increased following mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. The median UIC of pregnant Indigenous women in remote locations, however, remains low, and targeted interventions are needed to ensure healthy fetal development.",
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    Iodine status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Top End, before and after mandatory fortification. / Singh, Gurmeet R.; Davison, Belinda; Ma, Gary Y.; Eastman, Creswell J.; Mackerras, Dorothy Em.

    In: The Medical journal of Australia, Vol. 210, No. 3, 01.02.2019, p. 121-125.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Iodine status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Top End, before and after mandatory fortification

    AU - Singh, Gurmeet R.

    AU - Davison, Belinda

    AU - Ma, Gary Y.

    AU - Eastman, Creswell J.

    AU - Mackerras, Dorothy Em

    PY - 2019/2/1

    Y1 - 2019/2/1

    N2 - Objective: To assess the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of young adults in the Top End of Northern Territory, before and after fortification of bread with iodised salt became mandatory. Design, setting: Analysis of cross-sectional data from two longitudinal studies, the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and the non-Indigenous Top End Cohort, pre- (Indigenous participants: 2006-2007; non-Indigenous participants: 2007-2009) and post-fortification (2013-15). Participants: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian young adults (mean age: pre-fortification, 17.9 years (standard deviation [SD], 1.20 years); post-fortification, 24.9 years (SD, 1.34 years). Main outcome measures: Median UIC (spot urine samples analysed by a reference laboratory), by Indigenous status, remoteness of residence, and sex. RESULTS: Among the 368 participants assessed both pre- and post-fortification, the median UIC increased from 58 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 35-83 μg/L) pre-fortification to 101 μg/L (IQR, 66-163 μg/L) post-fortification (P < 0.001). Urban Indigenous (median IUC, 127 μg/L; IQR, 94-203 μg/L) and non-Indigenous adults (117 μg/L; IQR, 65-160 μg/L) were both iodine-replete post-fortification. The median UIC of remote Indigenous residents increased from 53 μg/L (IQR, 28-75 μg/L) to 94 μg/L (IQR, 63-152 μg/L; p < 0.001); that is, still mildly iodine-deficient. The pre-fortification median UIC for 22 pregnant women was 48 μg/L (IQR, 36-67 μg/L), the post-fortification median UIC for 24 pregnant women 93 μg/L (IQR, 62-171 μg/L); both values were considerably lower than the recommended minimum of 150 μg/L for pregnant women. Conclusions: The median UIC of young NT adults increased following mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. The median UIC of pregnant Indigenous women in remote locations, however, remains low, and targeted interventions are needed to ensure healthy fetal development.

    AB - Objective: To assess the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of young adults in the Top End of Northern Territory, before and after fortification of bread with iodised salt became mandatory. Design, setting: Analysis of cross-sectional data from two longitudinal studies, the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and the non-Indigenous Top End Cohort, pre- (Indigenous participants: 2006-2007; non-Indigenous participants: 2007-2009) and post-fortification (2013-15). Participants: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian young adults (mean age: pre-fortification, 17.9 years (standard deviation [SD], 1.20 years); post-fortification, 24.9 years (SD, 1.34 years). Main outcome measures: Median UIC (spot urine samples analysed by a reference laboratory), by Indigenous status, remoteness of residence, and sex. RESULTS: Among the 368 participants assessed both pre- and post-fortification, the median UIC increased from 58 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 35-83 μg/L) pre-fortification to 101 μg/L (IQR, 66-163 μg/L) post-fortification (P < 0.001). Urban Indigenous (median IUC, 127 μg/L; IQR, 94-203 μg/L) and non-Indigenous adults (117 μg/L; IQR, 65-160 μg/L) were both iodine-replete post-fortification. The median UIC of remote Indigenous residents increased from 53 μg/L (IQR, 28-75 μg/L) to 94 μg/L (IQR, 63-152 μg/L; p < 0.001); that is, still mildly iodine-deficient. The pre-fortification median UIC for 22 pregnant women was 48 μg/L (IQR, 36-67 μg/L), the post-fortification median UIC for 24 pregnant women 93 μg/L (IQR, 62-171 μg/L); both values were considerably lower than the recommended minimum of 150 μg/L for pregnant women. Conclusions: The median UIC of young NT adults increased following mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. The median UIC of pregnant Indigenous women in remote locations, however, remains low, and targeted interventions are needed to ensure healthy fetal development.

    KW - Food fortification

    KW - Iodine

    KW - Longitudinal studies

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    DO - 10.5694/mja2.12031

    M3 - Article

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    EP - 125

    JO - Medical Journal of Australia

    JF - Medical Journal of Australia

    SN - 0025-729X

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