Methods: Longitudinal observational study of Indigenous Australians aged ≥18 years recruited from >20 sites, across diabetes and/or kidney function strata. At baseline, iohexol clearance was used to measure glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) and hyperfiltration was defined as (i) a mGFR of ≥125 mL/min/1.73 m2, and (ii) an age-adjusted definition, with the top 10% of the mGFR for each 10 year age group at baseline. Baseline and follow-up urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) was collected, and linear regression was used to assess the associations of hyperfiltration and uACR at follow up.
Results: 407 individuals (33% men, mean age 47 years) were followed-up for a median of 3 years. At baseline, 234 had normoalbuminuria and 173 had albuminuria. Among participants with normoalbuminuria, those with mGFR ≥125 mL/min/1.73 m2 had 32% higher uACR at follow-up (p = 0.08), and those with age-adjusted hyperfiltration had 60% higher uACR (p = 0.037) compared to those who had normofiltration. These associations were independent of uACR at baseline, but attenuated by HbA1c. Associations were stronger among those without than those with albuminuria at baseline.
Conclusions: Although not available for assessment in current clinical practice, hyperfiltration may represent a marker of subsequent albuminuria progression among individuals who have not yet developed albuminuria.