Jung's Answer to Job was one of the most allusive, and yet elusive, texts he ever wrote. This article offers an interpretation of what Jung was intending to accomplish in writing this strange book. It places it in historical context in the aftermath of World War II, a time of widespread public shock at the Holocaust and fear of imminent global destruction. By outlining some notable theories about the nature of myth, the true significance of Jung’s achievement can be better understood. In this regard the insightful concepts of the Italian philosopher, Giambattista Vico, are particularly helpful. The myth that almost immediately began to grow up surrounding the writing of the book and its controversial public reception is also discussed.