Long-Term Survival and Dialysis Dependency Following Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care: Extended Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Martin Gallagher, Alan Cass, Rinaldo Bellomo, Simon Finfer, David Gattas, Joanne Lee, Serigne Lo, Shay McGuinness, John Myburgh, Rachael Parke, Dorrilyn Rajbhandari

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    Abstract

    Background: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally and it is much more common than end-stage kidney disease. AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation. Studies of treatments to reduce this high mortality have used differing renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities and have not shown improvement in the short term. The reported long-term outcomes of AKI are variable and the effect of differing RRT modalities upon them is not clear. We used the prolonged follow-up of a large clinical trial to prospectively examine the long-term outcomes and effect of RRT dosing in patients with AKI.

    Methods and Findings: 
    We extended the follow-up of participants in the Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Levels of RRT (RENAL) study from 90 days to 4 years after randomization. Primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and requirement for maintenance dialysis, respectively, assessed in 1,464 (97%) patients at a median of 43.9 months (interquartile range [IQR] 30.0–48.6 months) post randomization. A total of 468/743 (63%) and 444/721 (62%) patients died in the lower and higher intensity groups, respectively (risk ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.12, p = 0.49). Amongst survivors to day 90, 21 of 411 (5.1%) and 23 of 399 (5.8%) in the respective groups were treated with maintenance dialysis (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63–2.00, p = 0.69). The prevalence of albuminuria among survivors was 40% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.48). Quality of life was not different between the two treatment groups. The generalizability of these findings to other populations with AKI requires further exploration.

    Conclusions:
     Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis. Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria. Increased intensity of RRT does not reduce mortality or subsequent treatment with dialysis.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere1001601
    Pages (from-to)1-13
    Number of pages13
    JournalPLoS Medicine
    Volume11
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2014

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  • Cite this

    Gallagher, M., Cass, A., Bellomo, R., Finfer, S., Gattas, D., Lee, J., Lo, S., McGuinness, S., Myburgh, J., Parke, R., & Rajbhandari, D. (2014). Long-Term Survival and Dialysis Dependency Following Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care: Extended Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS Medicine, 11(2), 1-13. [e1001601]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001601