International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) include valvular heart disease of unspecified origin, limiting their usefulness for estimating RHD burden. A cross-disciplinary national consultation developed an algorithm to improve RHD identification in hospital data. The algorithm has been operationalised and piloted. The algorithm developed categorised 32% of RHD-coded patients as probable/possible RHD. We outline a series of research initiatives to improve identification of RHD in administrative data thereby contributing to monitoring the RHD burden globally.