Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body. It has several functions in the human body including its role as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions. Several studies have shown that hypomagnesemia is a common electrolyte derangement in clinical setting especially in patients admitted to intensive care unit where it has been found to be associated with increase mortality and hospital stay. Hypomagnesemia can be caused by a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. It can also be a side effect of several medications. Many studies have reported that reduced levels of magnesium are associated with a wide range of chronic diseases. Magnesium can play important therapeutic and preventive role in several conditions such as diabetes, osteoporosis, bronchial asthma, preeclampsia, migraine, and cardiovascular diseases. This review is aimed at comprehensively collating the current available published evidence and clinical correlates of magnesium disorders.