Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Nicholas M. Douglas, Daniel Ansong, Steven Kho, Nicholas M. Anstey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Malaria is resurging in many African and South American countries, exacerbated by COVID-19-related health service disruption. In 2021, there were an estimated 247 million malaria cases and 619 000 deaths in 84 endemic countries. Plasmodium falciparum strains partly resistant to artemisinins are entrenched in the Greater Mekong region and have emerged in Africa, while Anopheles mosquito vectors continue to evolve physiological and behavioural resistance to insecticides. Elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria is hindered by impractical and potentially toxic antirelapse regimens. Parasitological diagnosis and treatment with oral or parenteral artemisinin-based therapy is the mainstay of patient management. Timely blood transfusion, renal replacement therapy, and restrictive fluid therapy can improve survival in severe malaria. Rigorous use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy and infancy and seasonal chemoprevention, potentially combined with pre-erythrocytic vaccines endorsed by WHO in 2021 and 2023, can substantially reduce malaria morbidity. Improved surveillance, better access to effective treatment, more labour-efficient vector control, continued drug development, targeted mass drug administration, and sustained political commitment are required to achieve targets for malaria reduction by the end of this decade.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2328-2345
Number of pages18
JournalThe Lancet
Issue number10419
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2023


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