Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

Andreas Wilting, Anna Cord, Andrew J Hearn, Deike Hesse, Azian Mohamed, Carl Traeholdt, Susan M Cheyne, Sunarto Sunarto, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Joanna Ross, Aureilie C Shapiro, Anthony Sebastian, Stefan Dech, Christine Breitenmoser, Jim Sanderson, J Duckworth, Heribert Hofer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Background: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of cameratrapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flatheaded cat. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key localities and be implemented through a continuous dialogue between local stakeholders, conservationists and scientists to ensure its long-term survival. The flat-headed cat can serve as a flagship species for the protection of several other endangered species associated with the threatened tropical lowland forests and surface fresh-water sources in this region. � 2010 Wilting et al.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)e9612-e9612
    Number of pages1
    JournalPLoS One
    Volume5
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

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    Felidae
    Conservation
    Cats
    biogeography
    Water
    Entropy
    Borneo
    Ecosystem
    land cover
    Museums
    Fresh Water
    Water resources
    entropy
    Pollution
    Rivers
    Water Resources
    habitats
    Endangered Species
    Indonesia
    Far East

    Cite this

    Wilting, A., Cord, A., Hearn, A. J., Hesse, D., Mohamed, A., Traeholdt, C., ... Hofer, H. (2010). Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid. PLoS One, 5(3), e9612-e9612.
    Wilting, Andreas ; Cord, Anna ; Hearn, Andrew J ; Hesse, Deike ; Mohamed, Azian ; Traeholdt, Carl ; Cheyne, Susan M ; Sunarto, Sunarto ; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan ; Ross, Joanna ; Shapiro, Aureilie C ; Sebastian, Anthony ; Dech, Stefan ; Breitenmoser, Christine ; Sanderson, Jim ; Duckworth, J ; Hofer, Heribert. / Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid. In: PLoS One. 2010 ; Vol. 5, No. 3. pp. e9612-e9612.
    @article{91346f02dd234c3785f5d2fc2f73f76b,
    title = "Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid",
    abstract = "Background: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of cameratrapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flatheaded cat. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50{\%} explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54{\%} and 68{\%} of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10{\%} and 20{\%} of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key localities and be implemented through a continuous dialogue between local stakeholders, conservationists and scientists to ensure its long-term survival. The flat-headed cat can serve as a flagship species for the protection of several other endangered species associated with the threatened tropical lowland forests and surface fresh-water sources in this region. � 2010 Wilting et al.",
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    author = "Andreas Wilting and Anna Cord and Hearn, {Andrew J} and Deike Hesse and Azian Mohamed and Carl Traeholdt and Cheyne, {Susan M} and Sunarto Sunarto and Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan and Joanna Ross and Shapiro, {Aureilie C} and Anthony Sebastian and Stefan Dech and Christine Breitenmoser and Jim Sanderson and J Duckworth and Heribert Hofer",
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    Wilting, A, Cord, A, Hearn, AJ, Hesse, D, Mohamed, A, Traeholdt, C, Cheyne, SM, Sunarto, S, Mohd-Azlan, J, Ross, J, Shapiro, AC, Sebastian, A, Dech, S, Breitenmoser, C, Sanderson, J, Duckworth, J & Hofer, H 2010, 'Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid', PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. e9612-e9612.

    Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid. / Wilting, Andreas; Cord, Anna; Hearn, Andrew J; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azian; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M; Sunarto, Sunarto; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aureilie C; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J; Hofer, Heribert.

    In: PLoS One, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2010, p. e9612-e9612.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    AU - Wilting, Andreas

    AU - Cord, Anna

    AU - Hearn, Andrew J

    AU - Hesse, Deike

    AU - Mohamed, Azian

    AU - Traeholdt, Carl

    AU - Cheyne, Susan M

    AU - Sunarto, Sunarto

    AU - Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan

    AU - Ross, Joanna

    AU - Shapiro, Aureilie C

    AU - Sebastian, Anthony

    AU - Dech, Stefan

    AU - Breitenmoser, Christine

    AU - Sanderson, Jim

    AU - Duckworth, J

    AU - Hofer, Heribert

    PY - 2010

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    N2 - Background: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of cameratrapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flatheaded cat. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key localities and be implemented through a continuous dialogue between local stakeholders, conservationists and scientists to ensure its long-term survival. The flat-headed cat can serve as a flagship species for the protection of several other endangered species associated with the threatened tropical lowland forests and surface fresh-water sources in this region. � 2010 Wilting et al.

    AB - Background: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of cameratrapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flatheaded cat. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key localities and be implemented through a continuous dialogue between local stakeholders, conservationists and scientists to ensure its long-term survival. The flat-headed cat can serve as a flagship species for the protection of several other endangered species associated with the threatened tropical lowland forests and surface fresh-water sources in this region. � 2010 Wilting et al.

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    KW - environmental protection

    KW - geography

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    KW - methodology

    KW - physiology

    KW - population density

    KW - Southeast Asia

    KW - species extinction

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    KW - Endangered Species

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    KW - Humans

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    KW - Models, Statistical

    KW - Population Density

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    Wilting A, Cord A, Hearn AJ, Hesse D, Mohamed A, Traeholdt C et al. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid. PLoS One. 2010;5(3):e9612-e9612.