Multi-Variable Governance Index Modeling of Government’s Policies, Legal and Institutional Strategies, and Management for Climate Compatible and Sustainable Agriculture Development

Kanwar Muhammad Javed Iqbal, Nadia Akhtar, Sarah Amir, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad Shah, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman Tariq, Wahid Ullah

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    Abstract

    Agriculture has a very strong nexus with water and energy sectors due to their complex interdependence and interplay in the context of adaptation, resilience, mitigation, and low carbon development to cope with the increasing effects of a changing climate. The situation demands a comprehensive response in terms of policies, legal instruments, institutional strategies, and management in the national, sub-national, and local contexts of the governance for climate compatibility, environmental security, and sustainable agriculture development; particularly in developing countries, as they are at the forefront of a high vulnerability risk and severe environmental insecurity due to a business-as-usual complex and weak governance. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the adequacy of the climate response vis-à-vis policies, legal and other appropriate arrangements in place for agriculture governance by reviewing the high vulnerability case of Pakistan. Considering the need, the assessment model was developed using the first climate principle, nine criteria, and 43 composite indicators. A multi-criteria decision analysis method along with Simple Multi Attribute Rating Technique (SMART) on a ratio scale, combining qualitative and quantitative data and employing rule-based and rights-based governance approaches were adopted to collect and analyze a dataset of 357 observations from 17 locations, which were validated through Pearson Correlation, Regression, and KW H-Tests. The findings reveal significant gaps at the federal, provincial, and district levels in policies, legal and institutional strategies to step forward the climate agenda in Pakistan’s agriculture sector. However, the inadequacy is not homogenous at all levels of governance. The overall situation is similar to what has been reported in developing countries in the United Nations Report on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2020. Provincial climate strategies are required along with enhanced coordination and capacities for execution at all tiers of constituencies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number11763
    Pages (from-to)1-19
    Number of pages19
    JournalSustainability
    Volume14
    Issue number18
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Sept 2022

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