Hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes has a major role in the development of microvascular complications, whereas the dyslipidaemia is the major cause of macrovascular complications. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, activation of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma with the fibrates and glitazones improves dyslipidaemia and increases insulin sensitivity, respectively. Muraglitazar is an agonist at both of these receptors and has been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, decrease triglycerides and improve insulin sensitivity. However, there is also some evidence that muraglitazar has detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Before muraglitazar is widely used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, more safety testing needs to be undertaken.