The Sicydiinae subfamily (Teleostei: Gobioidei) is the biggest contributor to the diversity of fish communities in river systems of tropical islands. These species are found in the Indo-Pacific area, the Caribbean region and West Africa. They spawn in freshwater, their planktotrophic larvae drift downstream to the sea where they develop, before returning to the rivers to grow and reproduce. Hence, they are called amphidromous. Their phylogeny has been explored using a total of 3545 sites from 5 molecular markers (mitochondrial DNA: 16S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b; nuclear DNA: rhodopsin gene and a nuclear marker specially developed for this study, the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1-IRF2PB1). Sequences were obtained for 59 Sicydiinae specimens of 9 known genera. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses support the monophyly of the subfamily as well as the monophylyof all genera except Sicydium, which is paraphyletic. Five major clades were identified within this subfamily. One clade contained the genus Stiphodon. Another clade contained Sicyopterus, Sicydium and Parasicydium with Sicyopterus as sister genus of Sicydium. The non-monophyly of Sicydium subclade, because it includes the monotypic genus Parasicydium, challenged the validity of Parasicydium genus. Ancestral area reconstruction showed that the subfamily emerged in the Central West Pacific region implying that previous hypotheses proposing a dispersal route for Sicydiinae into the Atlantic Ocean are unsupported by the present analysis. Our results suggest that the hypotheses for the dispersal route of the genus Sicydium should be reconsidered. � 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Taillebois, L., Castelin, M., Lord, C., Chabarria, R., Dettai, A., & Keith, P. (2014). New Sicydiinae phylogeny (Teleostei: Gobioidei) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: Insights on systematics and ancestral areas. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 70(January), 260-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.09.026