Non-prescribed antibiotic use occurs worldwide and is an important contributor to antibiotic resistance. Social and health system factors were related to the practice of self-medication with antibiotics. This study aims to investigate the practice of non-prescribed antibiotic use, and to assess the impact of primary health service access and use on this practice among Australian Chinese migrants. Four-hundred and twenty-six participants, who self-identified as Chinese and who had been residing in Australia for at least 12 months, were recruited through several Australian Chinese social websites to participate in an online health survey about antibiotic use and health services use from July to October 2013. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between health services utilisation factors and the use of non-prescribed antibiotics. In total, 20.2% (86/426) participants reported having used antibiotics without medical consultation in the last 12 months. Of 170 antibiotic users, 50.6% (86/170) used antibiotics without medical consultation. Chinese migrants who self-evaluated as ‘satisfied’ with the experiences of GP services were less likely to self-medicate with antibiotics. In addition, Chinese migrants without any perceived barriers to using primary health services in Australia were less likely to use non-prescribed antibiotics. Among Australian Chinese migrants, over half of antibiotic users admitted that they had used antibiotics without medical consultation. Participants with positive experience and perception of primary health services, primarily GP services, had a lower risk of using non-prescribed antibiotics.