P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Their Relationships

Benjamin Dean, Georgina L. Chrisp, Maria Quartararo, Ann M. Maguire, Shihab Hameed, Bruce R. King, Craig F. Munns, David J. Torpy, Henrik Falhammar, R. Louise Rushworth

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with significant morbidity. However there has been limited analysis of reported PORD cases. 

    Objective: To determine, based on the cohort of reported PORD cases, genotype-phenotype relationships for skeletal malformations, maternal virilisation in pregnancy, adrenal insufficiency, and disorders of sexual development (DSD). 

    Data Sources: PubMed and Web of Science from January 2004 to February 2018. 

    Study Selection: Published case reports/series of patients with PORD. Eligible patients were unique, had biallelic mutations, and their clinical features were reported. 

    Data Extraction: Patient data were manually extracted from the text of case reports/series. A malformation score, representing the severity of skeletal malformations, was calculated for each patient. 

    Data Synthesis: Of the 211 patients published in the literature, 90 were eligible for inclusion. More than 60 unique mutations were identified in this cohort. Four groups of mutations were identified, through regression modeling, as having significantly different skeletal malformation scores. Maternal virilization in pregnancy, reported for 21% of patients, was most common for R457H mutations. Adrenal insufficiency occurred for the majority of patients (78%) and was typically mild, with homozygous R457H mutations being the least deficient. DSD affected most patients (72%), but were less common for males (46XY) with homozygous R457H mutations. 

    Conclusions: PORD is a complex disorder with many possible mutations affecting a large number of enzymes. By analyzing the cohort of reported PORD cases, this study identified clear relationships between genotype and several important phenotypic features.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-11
    Number of pages11
    JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


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