Pahlawan, Pengkhianat, Atau Penjahat (Hero, Traitor, or Villain): A Personal Journey Through Indonesian History

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Abstract

This article concerns Indonesian heroes, traitors, and villains from different regions and eras. The factors influencing the categorisation of individuals as heroes or villains are examined. Examples include regional leaders who opposed the Dutch East India Company or collaborated with it. Similar cases are examined from the period of the Netherlands Indies colonial state. Also discussed are nationalists who were members of the Indonesian Communist Party, and people now deemed heroes who collaborated with the Japanese during the Second World War. Next for consideration are individuals involved in Confrontation with Malaysia and the occupation of East Timor. The last cases come from the world of popular music and show how performers idolised by fans can be considered villains by others.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7804
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalPolitics and Governance
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

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© 2024 by the author(s), licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY).

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