Background: Pancreatitis and diabetes are common among Aboriginal people of Central Australia. The contribution of pancreatitis to the development of post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus (PPDM) is not known. Aims: To describe among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people living in Central Australia, (i) the prevalence and aetiology of acute (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP), and (ii) diagnosis of new onset diabetes after pancreatitis. Methods: Retrospective medical record review of patients ≥15 years admitted to hospitals in the Central Australia Health Service between 2009 and 2018 with pancreatitis. Prevalence as a proportion of the resident population and aetiology of AP and CP were determined. Diagnosis of new onset diabetes after admission with pancreatitis was assessed. Results: Of the 638 patients assessed, 73% were Aboriginal and 48% female. The annual prevalence in 2009 and 2018 for AP was 171 and 203 per 100 000 persons, and for CP was 206 and 114 per 100 000 persons respectively. Rates were high in Aboriginal people. Alcohol aetiology was most common in Aboriginal people (66%) and biliary aetiology in non-Aboriginal people (37%). A diagnosis of diabetes after pancreatitis was detected in 125 (29%) of 438 patients who did not have a diabetes diagnosis previously recorded, and 20 of the 22 tested for diabetes-associated antibodies were negative, fitting criteria for PPDM. Conclusion: Prevalence of AP and CP in Central Australia was higher in Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Few patients with diabetes recorded after pancreatitis had appropriate PPDM diagnostic testing. Interdisciplinary education on the diagnosis of PPDM is required.