### Abstract

The usefulness of parameterized algorithmics has often depended on what Niedermeier has called "the art of problem parameterization". In this paper we introduce and explore a novel but general form of parameterization: the number of numbers. Several classic numerical problems, such as Subset Sum, Partition, 3-Partition, Numerical 3-Dimensional Matching, and Numerical Matching with Target Sums, have multisets of integers as input. We initiate the study of parameterizing these problems by the number of distinct integers in the input. We rely on an FPT result for Integer Linear Programming Feasibility to show that all the above-mentioned problems are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized in this way. In various applied settings, problem inputs often consist in part of multisets of integers or multisets of weighted objects (such as edges in a graph, or jobs to be scheduled). Such number-of-numbers parameterized problems often reduce to subproblems about transition systems of various kinds, parameterized by the size of the system description. We consider several core problems of this kind relevant to number-of-numbers parameterization. Our main hardness result considers the problem: given a non-deterministic Mealy machine M (a finite state automaton outputting a letter on each transition), an input word x, and a census requirement c for the output word specifying how many times each letter of the output alphabet should be written, decide whether there exists a computation of M reading x that outputs a word y that meets the requirement c. We show that this problem is hard for W[1]. If the question is whether there exists an input word x such that a computation of M on x outputs a word that meets c, the problem becomes fixed-parameter tractable. � 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Title of host publication | Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) |

Place of Publication | India |

Publisher | Springer |

Pages | - |

Number of pages | 11 |

ISBN (Print) | 0302-9743 |

Publication status | Published - 2010 |

Event | IPEC. Parameterized and Exact 2010 - India Duration: 13 Dec 2010 → 13 Dec 2010 |

### Conference

Conference | IPEC. Parameterized and Exact 2010 |
---|---|

Period | 13/12/10 → 13/12/10 |

## Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Parameterizing by the Number of Numbers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

## Cite this

Fellows, M., Gaspers, S., & Rosamond, F. (2010). Parameterizing by the Number of Numbers. In

*Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)*(pp. -). Springer.