Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal contents of Saudi Arabian floral honeys

Muhammad W. Ashraf, Sufyan Akram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The quality of floral honey produced in Saudi Arabia was evaluated. All samples were analyzed for common physicochemical parameters like moisture contents, acidity, ash, pH, conductivity, and heavy metal contents. All samples showed proper maturity, considering the low moisture percentage. The total acidity, below 50 meq/kg, in all samples indicated the absence of undesirable fermentation. Also, the mean pH around 4.0 was usual for floral honeys. The values for ash and conductivity (0.33% and 402μS/cm) were within the European Community Standards. Among heavy metals, Fe and Zn were detected in all samples, with the mean levels of 2.65μg/g and 0.77μg/g. Nickel was detected only in 20% of the samples analyzed. The heavy metal contents of Saudi Arabian floral honey were either comparable or lesser than internationally reported values. Therefore, they can be regarded to be safe for human consumption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)877-881
Number of pages5
JournalFresenius Environmental Bulletin
Issue number7 B
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


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