Population-based incidence, seasonality and serotype distribution of invasive salmonellosis among children in Nanoro, rural Burkina Faso

Issa Guiraud, Annelies Post, Seydou Nakanabo Diallo, Palpouguini Lompo, Jessica Maltha, Kamala Thriemer, Christian Marc Tahita, Benedikt Ley, Karim Derra, Emmanuel Bottieau, Adama Kazienga, Céline Schurmans, Raffaella Ravinetto, Eli Rouamba, Johan Van Griensven, Sophie Bertrand, Halidou Tinto, Jan Jacobs

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Abstract

Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by Salmonella Typhi and invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) frequently affect children living in rural sub-Saharan Africa but data about incidence and serotype distribution are rare. 


Objective: The present study assessed the population-based incidence of Salmonella BSI and severe malaria in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in a rural area with seasonal malaria transmission in Nanoro, Burkina Faso.

Methods: Children between 2 months—15 years old with severe febrile illness were enrolled during a one-year surveillance period (May 2013—May 2014). Thick blood films and blood cultures were sampled and processed upon admission. Population-based incidences were corrected for non-referral, health seeking behavior, non-inclusion and blood culture sensitivity. Adjusted incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years of observations (PYO).

Results: Among children < 5 years old, incidence rates for iNTS, Salmonella Typhi and severe malaria per 100,000 PYO were 4,138 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3,740–4,572), 224 (95% CI: 138–340) and 2,866 (95% CI: 2,538–3,233) respectively. Among those aged 5–15 years, corresponding incidence rates were 25 (95% CI: 8–60), 273 (95% CI: 203–355) and 135 (95% CI: 87–195) respectively. Most iNTS occurred during the peak of the rainy season and in parallel with the increase of Plasmodium falciparum malaria; for Salmonella Typhi no clear seasonal pattern was observed. Salmonella Typhi and iNTS accounted for 13.3% and 55.8% of all 118 BSI episodes; 71.6% of iNTS (48/67) isolates were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and 25.4% (17/67) Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis; there was no apparent geographical clustering.

Conclusion: The present findings from rural West-Africa confirm high incidences of Salmonella Typhi and iNTS, the latter with a seasonal and Plasmodium falciparum-related pattern. It urges prioritization of the development and implementation of Salmonella Typhi as well as iNTS vaccines in this setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0178577
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalPLoS One
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2017

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    Guiraud, I., Post, A., Diallo, S. N., Lompo, P., Maltha, J., Thriemer, K., Tahita, C. M., Ley, B., Derra, K., Bottieau, E., Kazienga, A., Schurmans, C., Ravinetto, R., Rouamba, E., Griensven, J. V., Bertrand, S., Tinto, H., & Jacobs, J. (2017). Population-based incidence, seasonality and serotype distribution of invasive salmonellosis among children in Nanoro, rural Burkina Faso. PLoS One, 12(7), 1-17. [e0178577]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178577