Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

Alexander M. Brown, Anna M. Kopps, Simon J. Allen, Lars Bejder, Bethan Littleford-Colquhoun, Guido J. Parra, Daniele Cagnazzi, Deborah Thiele, Carol Palmer, Celine H. Frère

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    Abstract

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06) to 0.13 (0.03-0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin. 

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere101427
    Pages (from-to)1-14
    Number of pages14
    JournalPLoS One
    Volume9
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2014

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    Dolphins
    Western Australia
    dolphins
    Conservation
    hybridization
    Genes
    Population
    Sampling
    Mitochondrial DNA
    Microsatellite Repeats
    genetic variation
    Gene Flow
    gene flow
    Orcaella heinsohni
    Sousa chinensis
    Genetic Structures
    Population Genetics
    nuclear genome
    Population Density
    Genetic Markers

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    Brown, A. M., Kopps, A. M., Allen, S. J., Bejder, L., Littleford-Colquhoun, B., Parra, G. J., ... Frère, C. H. (2014). Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia. PLoS One, 9(7), 1-14. [e101427]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101427
    Brown, Alexander M. ; Kopps, Anna M. ; Allen, Simon J. ; Bejder, Lars ; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan ; Parra, Guido J. ; Cagnazzi, Daniele ; Thiele, Deborah ; Palmer, Carol ; Frère, Celine H. / Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 7. pp. 1-14.
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    title = "Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia",
    abstract = "Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95{\%} CI 0.00-0.06) to 0.13 (0.03-0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin. ",
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    author = "Brown, {Alexander M.} and Kopps, {Anna M.} and Allen, {Simon J.} and Lars Bejder and Bethan Littleford-Colquhoun and Parra, {Guido J.} and Daniele Cagnazzi and Deborah Thiele and Carol Palmer and Fr{\`e}re, {Celine H.}",
    note = "19 Sep 2014: The PLOS ONE Staff (2014) Correction: Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia. PLOS ONE 9(9): e109228. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109228",
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    Brown, AM, Kopps, AM, Allen, SJ, Bejder, L, Littleford-Colquhoun, B, Parra, GJ, Cagnazzi, D, Thiele, D, Palmer, C & Frère, CH 2014, 'Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 7, e101427, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101427

    Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia. / Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 7, e101427, 02.07.2014, p. 1-14.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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    AU - Cagnazzi, Daniele

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    N1 - 19 Sep 2014: The PLOS ONE Staff (2014) Correction: Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia. PLOS ONE 9(9): e109228. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109228

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