Population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

Mark Meekan, Corey Bradshaw, M Press, C MCLEAN, Anna E Richards, S Quasnichka, J Taylor

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    We used photo-identification to produce estimates of population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. We analysed photographs of whale sharks taken from 1992 to 2004. A combination of spot and stripe patterns behind the last gill slit and forward of the dorsal fin (lateral view), and distinctive scars and marks on the body and fins were useful for identifying individual sharks. These patterns appeared to be unique to individuals and distinctive markings could be recognized on some sharks for more than a decade. From 581 photographs, 159 individuals were identified. Of these, 74% were male, 16% were female and 10% were of indeterminate gender. Photographed sharks ranged in estimated size from 3 to 10 m total length (TL). The size distribution of sharks was bimodal with a large peak at 8 m and a smaller peak at 6 m TL. Sixty individuals were resighted during the study. Of these, 46 were resighted at different times during the same year (sometimes on multiple occasions) up to 4 mo after they were initially photographed, and 33 were resighted (4 on >2 occasions) in different years. The interval between inter-annual resightings was typically 1 to 3 yr; however, 2 sharks were resighted after a period of 12 yr. We estimated the super population of whale sharks that visit Ningaloo Reef to consist of approximately 300 to 500 individuals (95 % confidence interval) based on closed population models, or 320 to 440 based on Jolly-Seber open-population models. Our study shows that photo-identification offers a practical, non-invasive and non-destructive means to obtain data on the population size and demography of whale sharks. � Inter-Research 2006.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)275-285
    Number of pages11
    JournalMarine Ecology - Progress Series
    Volume319
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

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    sharks
    whale
    Western Australia
    population structure
    population size
    reefs
    reef
    photographs
    fins
    photograph
    demography
    confidence interval
    gills
    Rhincodon typus
    gender

    Cite this

    Meekan, M., Bradshaw, C., Press, M., MCLEAN, C., Richards, A. E., Quasnichka, S., & Taylor, J. (2006). Population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 319, 275-285.
    Meekan, Mark ; Bradshaw, Corey ; Press, M ; MCLEAN, C ; Richards, Anna E ; Quasnichka, S ; Taylor, J. / Population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. In: Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 2006 ; Vol. 319. pp. 275-285.
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    abstract = "We used photo-identification to produce estimates of population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. We analysed photographs of whale sharks taken from 1992 to 2004. A combination of spot and stripe patterns behind the last gill slit and forward of the dorsal fin (lateral view), and distinctive scars and marks on the body and fins were useful for identifying individual sharks. These patterns appeared to be unique to individuals and distinctive markings could be recognized on some sharks for more than a decade. From 581 photographs, 159 individuals were identified. Of these, 74{\%} were male, 16{\%} were female and 10{\%} were of indeterminate gender. Photographed sharks ranged in estimated size from 3 to 10 m total length (TL). The size distribution of sharks was bimodal with a large peak at 8 m and a smaller peak at 6 m TL. Sixty individuals were resighted during the study. Of these, 46 were resighted at different times during the same year (sometimes on multiple occasions) up to 4 mo after they were initially photographed, and 33 were resighted (4 on >2 occasions) in different years. The interval between inter-annual resightings was typically 1 to 3 yr; however, 2 sharks were resighted after a period of 12 yr. We estimated the super population of whale sharks that visit Ningaloo Reef to consist of approximately 300 to 500 individuals (95 {\%} confidence interval) based on closed population models, or 320 to 440 based on Jolly-Seber open-population models. Our study shows that photo-identification offers a practical, non-invasive and non-destructive means to obtain data on the population size and demography of whale sharks. � Inter-Research 2006.",
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    author = "Mark Meekan and Corey Bradshaw and M Press and C MCLEAN and Richards, {Anna E} and S Quasnichka and J Taylor",
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    Meekan, M, Bradshaw, C, Press, M, MCLEAN, C, Richards, AE, Quasnichka, S & Taylor, J 2006, 'Population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia', Marine Ecology - Progress Series, vol. 319, pp. 275-285.

    Population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. / Meekan, Mark; Bradshaw, Corey; Press, M; MCLEAN, C; Richards, Anna E; Quasnichka, S; Taylor, J.

    In: Marine Ecology - Progress Series, Vol. 319, 2006, p. 275-285.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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    AU - Quasnichka, S

    AU - Taylor, J

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    AB - We used photo-identification to produce estimates of population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. We analysed photographs of whale sharks taken from 1992 to 2004. A combination of spot and stripe patterns behind the last gill slit and forward of the dorsal fin (lateral view), and distinctive scars and marks on the body and fins were useful for identifying individual sharks. These patterns appeared to be unique to individuals and distinctive markings could be recognized on some sharks for more than a decade. From 581 photographs, 159 individuals were identified. Of these, 74% were male, 16% were female and 10% were of indeterminate gender. Photographed sharks ranged in estimated size from 3 to 10 m total length (TL). The size distribution of sharks was bimodal with a large peak at 8 m and a smaller peak at 6 m TL. Sixty individuals were resighted during the study. Of these, 46 were resighted at different times during the same year (sometimes on multiple occasions) up to 4 mo after they were initially photographed, and 33 were resighted (4 on >2 occasions) in different years. The interval between inter-annual resightings was typically 1 to 3 yr; however, 2 sharks were resighted after a period of 12 yr. We estimated the super population of whale sharks that visit Ningaloo Reef to consist of approximately 300 to 500 individuals (95 % confidence interval) based on closed population models, or 320 to 440 based on Jolly-Seber open-population models. Our study shows that photo-identification offers a practical, non-invasive and non-destructive means to obtain data on the population size and demography of whale sharks. � Inter-Research 2006.

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    Meekan M, Bradshaw C, Press M, MCLEAN C, Richards AE, Quasnichka S et al. Population size and structure of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 2006;319:275-285.