Background: Fungal infection is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in lung transplant recipients (LuTR). Treatment failure to first-line antifungals because of resistance or intolerance is an increasing problem. Posaconazole (PCZ), a triazole antifungal, is an attractive treatment option.
Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective study to describe the use, tolerability, efficacy, and drug interaction effect (with tacrolimus) of PCZ oral suspension in LuTR.
Results: Seventy-eight patients were treated with PCZ oral suspension for prophylaxis (n = 15), pre-emptive treatment (n = 31), and treatment of possible (n = 7) and probable (n = 25) invasive fungal infection. A range of fungal isolates was encountered. Resolution was observed in 52.4% (probable, possible, and pre-emptive treatment groups). Aggregate all-cause 1-year mortality was 12.8%. PCZ was well tolerated with 11.5% of patients experiencing adverse effects. Despite dose adjustment strategies, 11.7% of patients experienced supratherapeutic tacrolimus levels, which in 5 cases was associated with a rise (mean 21.6 μmol/L) in serum creatinine.
Conclusions: PCZ is well tolerated and appears effective in the management of fungal infection after lung transplantation. Patients receiving concurrent tacrolimus require careful therapeutic drug monitoring.