This study aimed to evaluate the progress in reduction of prevalence of anemia in rural Australia. It also investigates the prevalence of hypoviscosity in anaemia with a view to determine the fraction of anaemic patients at risk of drug-inducible exacerbation of anemia. Archived clinical pathology data ( = 1 3 0 , 3 5 4 ) for the period of 1999 to 2008 were utilized. The prevalence of anemia and hypoviscosity was evaluated by working out (i) the number that fell within anemia definition as a percentage of the population and (ii) the number that fell within hypoviscosity definition as a percentage of anemic patients. The prevalence in anemic diabetes and dyslipidaemia was further determined. There was progressive reduction in anemia from 6.1% to 3.2% over the ten years period. Prevalence of anemia is statistically significantly higher in males than in females ( < 0 . 0 0 0 1 ), but protein level is lower in anemic females than in anemic males ( < 0 . 0 1 ). The results further show that up to 75% of anemic patients may benefit from NSAID or salicylates. This paper highlights differences between genders. It suggests more concerted effort in men's health and speculates a new factor to investigate in women's health.