Objective: This is a systematic review of the distribution of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Nigeria, the clinical definitions widely used and how it affects the proposition of a national prevalence of CMS that will advise management interventions. Study design: Systematic review of literature.
Methods: To present a comprehensive report of the distribution of CMS in Nigeria, extensive searches was carried out on PubMed, African Journals Online (AJOL), SCOPUS, EBSCOhost (CINAHL Plus), Google Scholar and Science Direct using terms: Nigeria, metabolic syndrome, cardio-metabolic syndrome, syndrome X, World Health Organization, International Diabetic Federation, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, European Group for study on Insulin Resistance, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. All published data between January 2002 and December 2013 were collated into a database. Information gathered and recorded for each source were the population sampled, age and number of population, locality, clinical definition used, longitude and latitude, and period of the study.
Results: Out of 32 studies, 9 (28.1%) adopted the WHO classification, 19 (59.4%) used the ATPIII definition, while the remaining 10 (31.3%) studies used the IDF definitions. Twenty (62.5%) were hospital-based studies on diabetic, hypertensive, HIV, asthmatic and thyroid disorder patients. The remaining 12 (37.5%) studies were population-based studies in urban, suburb and rural settings. The mean overall prevalence of CMS in Nigeria is 31.7%, 27.9% and 28.1% according to the WHO, ATPIII and IDF definitions, respectively. Most of the studies were from the Southern region. Age groups mostly studied were those from ≥35years.
Conclusion: The report of this review provides an essential overview on the current distribution of CMS in Nigeria. It provides an insight to direct future studies such as the need to (1) study rural communities where lifestyles are not westernized as in the urban areas, and (2) young adults, as well as (3) develop a consensus on the definition of CMS among the Sub-Saharan African populations.