Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances

Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes

Paulo M. Brando, Divino Silvério, Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos, Claudinei Oliveira-Santos, Shaun R. Levick, Michael T. Coe, Mirco Migliavacca, Jennifer K. Balch, Marcia N. Macedo, Daniel C. Nepstad, Leandro Maracahipes, Eric Davidson, Gregory Asner, Olaf Kolle, Susan Trumbore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Drought, fire, and windstorms can interact to degrade tropical forests and the ecosystem services they provide, but how these forests recover after catastrophic disturbance events remains relatively unknown. Here, we analyze multi-year measurements of vegetation dynamics and function (fluxes of CO2 and H2O) in forests recovering from 7 years of controlled burns, followed by wind disturbance. Located in southeast Amazonia, the experimental forest consists of three 50-ha plots burned annually, triennially, or not at all from 2004 to 2010. During the subsequent 6-year recovery period, postfire tree survivorship and biomass sharply declined, with aboveground C stocks decreasing by 70%–94% along forest edges (0–200 m into the forest) and 36%–40% in the forest interior. Vegetation regrowth in the forest understory triggered partial canopy closure (70%–80%) from 2010 to 2015. The composition and spatial distribution of grasses invading degraded forest evolved rapidly, likely because of the delayed mortality. Four years after the experimental fires ended (2014), the burned plots assimilated 36% less carbon than the Control, but net CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration (ET) had fully recovered 7 years after the experimental fires ended (2017). Carbon uptake recovery occurred largely in response to increased light-use efficiency and reduced postfire respiration, whereas increased water use associated with postfire growth of new recruits and remaining trees explained the recovery in ET. Although the effects of interacting disturbances (e.g., fires, forest fragmentation, and blowdown events) on mortality and biomass persist over many years, the rapid recovery of carbon and water fluxes can help stabilize local climate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2855-2868
Number of pages14
JournalGlobal Change Biology
Volume25
Issue number9
Early online date25 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Fingerprint

tropical forest
Fires
Fluxes
disturbance
Recovery
Degradation
degradation
Evapotranspiration
Carbon
Biomass
Water
Drought
evapotranspiration
carbon
Ecosystems
Spatial distribution
mortality
light use efficiency
forest edge
vegetation dynamics

Cite this

Brando, P. M., Silvério, D., Maracahipes-Santos, L., Oliveira-Santos, C., Levick, S. R., Coe, M. T., ... Trumbore, S. (2019). Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances: Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes. Global Change Biology, 25(9), 2855-2868. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14659
Brando, Paulo M. ; Silvério, Divino ; Maracahipes-Santos, Leonardo ; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei ; Levick, Shaun R. ; Coe, Michael T. ; Migliavacca, Mirco ; Balch, Jennifer K. ; Macedo, Marcia N. ; Nepstad, Daniel C. ; Maracahipes, Leandro ; Davidson, Eric ; Asner, Gregory ; Kolle, Olaf ; Trumbore, Susan. / Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances : Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes. In: Global Change Biology. 2019 ; Vol. 25, No. 9. pp. 2855-2868.
@article{b2bad02c6fba4d1a9454ca5a50f7b92e,
title = "Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances: Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes",
abstract = "Drought, fire, and windstorms can interact to degrade tropical forests and the ecosystem services they provide, but how these forests recover after catastrophic disturbance events remains relatively unknown. Here, we analyze multi-year measurements of vegetation dynamics and function (fluxes of CO2 and H2O) in forests recovering from 7 years of controlled burns, followed by wind disturbance. Located in southeast Amazonia, the experimental forest consists of three 50-ha plots burned annually, triennially, or not at all from 2004 to 2010. During the subsequent 6-year recovery period, postfire tree survivorship and biomass sharply declined, with aboveground C stocks decreasing by 70{\%}–94{\%} along forest edges (0–200 m into the forest) and 36{\%}–40{\%} in the forest interior. Vegetation regrowth in the forest understory triggered partial canopy closure (70{\%}–80{\%}) from 2010 to 2015. The composition and spatial distribution of grasses invading degraded forest evolved rapidly, likely because of the delayed mortality. Four years after the experimental fires ended (2014), the burned plots assimilated 36{\%} less carbon than the Control, but net CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration (ET) had fully recovered 7 years after the experimental fires ended (2017). Carbon uptake recovery occurred largely in response to increased light-use efficiency and reduced postfire respiration, whereas increased water use associated with postfire growth of new recruits and remaining trees explained the recovery in ET. Although the effects of interacting disturbances (e.g., fires, forest fragmentation, and blowdown events) on mortality and biomass persist over many years, the rapid recovery of carbon and water fluxes can help stabilize local climate.",
keywords = "disturbance, recovery, resilience, tropical, wildfires",
author = "Brando, {Paulo M.} and Divino Silv{\'e}rio and Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos and Claudinei Oliveira-Santos and Levick, {Shaun R.} and Coe, {Michael T.} and Mirco Migliavacca and Balch, {Jennifer K.} and Macedo, {Marcia N.} and Nepstad, {Daniel C.} and Leandro Maracahipes and Eric Davidson and Gregory Asner and Olaf Kolle and Susan Trumbore",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1111/gcb.14659",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "2855--2868",
journal = "Global Change Biology",
issn = "1354-1013",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "9",

}

Brando, PM, Silvério, D, Maracahipes-Santos, L, Oliveira-Santos, C, Levick, SR, Coe, MT, Migliavacca, M, Balch, JK, Macedo, MN, Nepstad, DC, Maracahipes, L, Davidson, E, Asner, G, Kolle, O & Trumbore, S 2019, 'Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances: Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes', Global Change Biology, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2855-2868. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14659

Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances : Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes. / Brando, Paulo M.; Silvério, Divino; Maracahipes-Santos, Leonardo; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Levick, Shaun R.; Coe, Michael T.; Migliavacca, Mirco; Balch, Jennifer K.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Maracahipes, Leandro; Davidson, Eric; Asner, Gregory; Kolle, Olaf; Trumbore, Susan.

In: Global Change Biology, Vol. 25, No. 9, 09.2019, p. 2855-2868.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prolonged tropical forest degradation due to compounding disturbances

T2 - Implications for CO2 and H2O fluxes

AU - Brando, Paulo M.

AU - Silvério, Divino

AU - Maracahipes-Santos, Leonardo

AU - Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei

AU - Levick, Shaun R.

AU - Coe, Michael T.

AU - Migliavacca, Mirco

AU - Balch, Jennifer K.

AU - Macedo, Marcia N.

AU - Nepstad, Daniel C.

AU - Maracahipes, Leandro

AU - Davidson, Eric

AU - Asner, Gregory

AU - Kolle, Olaf

AU - Trumbore, Susan

PY - 2019/9

Y1 - 2019/9

N2 - Drought, fire, and windstorms can interact to degrade tropical forests and the ecosystem services they provide, but how these forests recover after catastrophic disturbance events remains relatively unknown. Here, we analyze multi-year measurements of vegetation dynamics and function (fluxes of CO2 and H2O) in forests recovering from 7 years of controlled burns, followed by wind disturbance. Located in southeast Amazonia, the experimental forest consists of three 50-ha plots burned annually, triennially, or not at all from 2004 to 2010. During the subsequent 6-year recovery period, postfire tree survivorship and biomass sharply declined, with aboveground C stocks decreasing by 70%–94% along forest edges (0–200 m into the forest) and 36%–40% in the forest interior. Vegetation regrowth in the forest understory triggered partial canopy closure (70%–80%) from 2010 to 2015. The composition and spatial distribution of grasses invading degraded forest evolved rapidly, likely because of the delayed mortality. Four years after the experimental fires ended (2014), the burned plots assimilated 36% less carbon than the Control, but net CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration (ET) had fully recovered 7 years after the experimental fires ended (2017). Carbon uptake recovery occurred largely in response to increased light-use efficiency and reduced postfire respiration, whereas increased water use associated with postfire growth of new recruits and remaining trees explained the recovery in ET. Although the effects of interacting disturbances (e.g., fires, forest fragmentation, and blowdown events) on mortality and biomass persist over many years, the rapid recovery of carbon and water fluxes can help stabilize local climate.

AB - Drought, fire, and windstorms can interact to degrade tropical forests and the ecosystem services they provide, but how these forests recover after catastrophic disturbance events remains relatively unknown. Here, we analyze multi-year measurements of vegetation dynamics and function (fluxes of CO2 and H2O) in forests recovering from 7 years of controlled burns, followed by wind disturbance. Located in southeast Amazonia, the experimental forest consists of three 50-ha plots burned annually, triennially, or not at all from 2004 to 2010. During the subsequent 6-year recovery period, postfire tree survivorship and biomass sharply declined, with aboveground C stocks decreasing by 70%–94% along forest edges (0–200 m into the forest) and 36%–40% in the forest interior. Vegetation regrowth in the forest understory triggered partial canopy closure (70%–80%) from 2010 to 2015. The composition and spatial distribution of grasses invading degraded forest evolved rapidly, likely because of the delayed mortality. Four years after the experimental fires ended (2014), the burned plots assimilated 36% less carbon than the Control, but net CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration (ET) had fully recovered 7 years after the experimental fires ended (2017). Carbon uptake recovery occurred largely in response to increased light-use efficiency and reduced postfire respiration, whereas increased water use associated with postfire growth of new recruits and remaining trees explained the recovery in ET. Although the effects of interacting disturbances (e.g., fires, forest fragmentation, and blowdown events) on mortality and biomass persist over many years, the rapid recovery of carbon and water fluxes can help stabilize local climate.

KW - disturbance

KW - recovery

KW - resilience

KW - tropical

KW - wildfires

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068031322&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/gcb.14659

DO - 10.1111/gcb.14659

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 2855

EP - 2868

JO - Global Change Biology

JF - Global Change Biology

SN - 1354-1013

IS - 9

ER -