Promoting energy efficiency and conservation is an urgent imperative in responding to the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, particularly in emerging markets. This article provides insights into factors that may enhance or impede the purchase of energy-efficient household appliances in Vietnam. It also suggests intervention strategies to enhance the motivators and mitigate the barriers associated with energy-efficient appliance purchases. Data were collected from shoppers in popular electronics and appliance stores. The findings reveal that consumer purchasing behaviors are motivated by long-term savings, environmental protection, social influence, green self-identity and innovative technologies. Major barriers include lack of information, low level of credibility of energy rating labels, high prices, time consumption and limited product range. This article is of interest to policy-makers, social-environmental organizations, manufacturers and retailers in the development of more effective strategies for promoting energy efficiency and conservation. It extends current knowledge about environmentally responsible behavior in emerging markets such as Vietnam.