Background: There are limited studies on the effects of statins on outcomes in the moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) population and their trajectory to end-stage kidney disease.
Objective: To examine the long-term effects of lipid-lowering therapy on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, CKD progression, and socioeconomic well-being in Australian, New Zealand, and Malaysian SHARP (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) trial participants—a randomized controlled trial of a combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe, compared with placebo, for the reduction of cardiovascular events in moderate to severe CKD.
Design: Protocol for an extended prospective observational follow-up.
Setting: Australian, New Zealand, and Malaysian participating centers in patients with advanced CKD.
Patients: All SHARP trial participants alive at the final study visit.
Measurements: Primary outcomes were measured by participant self-report and verified by hospital administrative data. In addition, secondary outcomes were measured using a validated study questionnaire of health-related quality of life, a 56-item economic survey.
Methods: Participants were followed up with alternating face-to-face visits and telephone calls on a 6-monthly basis until 5 years following their final SHARP Study visit. In addition, there were 6-monthly follow-up telephone calls in between these visits. Data linkage to health registries in Australia, New Zealand, and Malaysia was also performed.
Results: The SHARP-Extended Review (SHARP-ER) cohort comprised 1136 SHARP participants with a median of 4.6 years of follow-up. Compared with all SHARP participants who originally participated in the Australian, New Zealand, and Malaysian regions, the SHARP-ER participants were younger (57.2 [48.3-66.4] vs 60.5 [50.3-70.7] years) with a lower proportion of men (61.5% vs 62.8%). There were a lower proportion of participants with hypertension (83.7% vs 85.0%) and diabetes (20.0% vs 23.5%). Limitations: As a long-term follow-up study, the surviving cohort of SHARP-ER is a selected group of the original study participants, which may limit the generalizability of the findings.
Conclusion: The SHARP-ER study will contribute important evidence on the long-term outcomes of cholesterol-lowering therapy in patients with advanced CKD with a total of 10 years of follow-up. Novel analyses of the socioeconomic impact of CKD over time will guide resource allocation.
Trial Registration: The SHARP trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00125593 and ISRCTN 54137607.