Quality appraisal and descriptive analysis of clinical practice guidelines for self-managed non-pharmacological interventions of cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review

Yun Qian, Jing Yu Tan, Tao Wang, Daniel Bressington, Hong Juan Zhou, Meng Yuan Li, Xian Liang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death around the world. Most CVDs-related death can be prevented by the optimal management of risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for CVDs, provide some evidence-based recommendations which help healthcare professionals to achieve the best care for patients with CVDs. This systematic review aims to appraise the methodological quality of CPGs systematically and summarize the recommendations of self-managed non-pharmacological interventions for the prevention and management of CVDs provided by the selected guidelines.

Methods: A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted via six databases (PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science), seven professional heart association websites, and nine guideline repositories. The Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument was adopted to critically appraise the methodological quality of the selected guidelines. Content analysis was used to summarise recommended self-managed non-pharmacological interventions for CVDs. 

Results: Twenty-three CPGs regarding different CVDs were included, in which four guidelines of CVDs, three for coronary heart diseases, seven for heart failure, two for atrial fibrillation, three for stroke, three for peripheral arterial disease, and one for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Twenty CPGs were appraised as high quality, and three CPGs as moderate quality. All twenty-three CPGs were recommended for use with or without modification. The domain of “Editorial Independence” had the highest standardized percentage (93.47%), whereas the domain of “Applicability” had the lowest mean domain score of 75.41%. The content analysis findings summarised some common self-managed non-pharmacological interventions, which include healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol control, and weight management. Healthy diet and physical acidity are the most common and agreed on self-managed interventions for patients with CVDs. There are some inconsistencies identified in the details of recommended interventions, the intervention itself, the grade of recommendation, and the supported level of evidence. 

Conclusion: The majority of the summarized non-pharmacological interventions were strongly recommended with moderate to high-quality levels of evidence. Healthcare professionals and researchers can adopt the results of this review to design self-managed non-pharmacological interventions for patients with CVDs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number215
Pages (from-to)1-35
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Translational Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


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