Wellbeing is a useful indicator of social progress because its subjectivity accounts for diverse aspirations. The Interplay Research Project developed a wellbeing framework for Aboriginal Peoples in remote Australia comprising government and community wellbeing priorities. This article describes statistical modelling of community priorities based on surveys administered by community researchers to 841 participants from four remote settlements. Constructs for Aboriginal language literacy, cultural practice, and empowerment were identified through exploratory factor analysis (EFA); structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to confirm relationships. Cultural practice was associated with Aboriginal language literacy and empowerment, which were both associated with wellbeing. Aboriginal literacy and empowerment mediated negative direct relationships between cultural practice and wellbeing. Direct relationships were significant only for females for whom empowerment and Aboriginal literacy appear key to enhancing wellbeing.