The development of leishmanicidal quinolines and their in vitro (promastigote and amastigote) and, where applicable, in vivo activities are reviewed. This survey provides a direct comparison of bioactivity across different species (e.g. L. donovani, L. amazonensis, L. chagasi, L infantum), and in different animal models (e.g. L. donovani Balb/c mice and L. donovani infected hamsters). The progress of selected quinolines through pre-clinical development and phase I/II trials, and the lead quinoline drugs sitamaquinine and Imiquimod, are discussed in conjunction with delivery systems and combination therapies.