We have previously demonstrated that a slight increase in intracellular superoxide (O2•-) anion confers resistance to death stimuli. Using pharmacological and molecular approaches to manipulate intracellular O2•-, here we report that an increase in intracellular O2•- anion induces Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE-1) gene promoter activity resulting in increased NHE-1 protein expression, which strongly correlates with the resistance of cells to death stimuli. In contrast, exposure to exogenous hydrogen peroxide suppressed NHE-1 promoter activity and gene expression, and increased cell sensitivity to death triggers. Furthermore, the increase in cell sensitivity to death upon downregulation of NHE-1 gene expression correlates with reduced capacity of cells to recover from an acid load, while survival upon overexpression of NHE-1 appears independent of its pump activity. These findings indicate that NHE-1 is a redox-regulated gene, and provide a novel intracellular target for the redox control of cell death sensitivity.