The rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their multidrug-resistance poses a severe challenge for health professionals and for the development of new healthcare products. Various strategies are exploited for the development of effective antimicrobial agents, and nanoparticles are a particularly promising class of materials in this respect. This review summarizes recent advances in antimicrobial metallic, polymeric, and lipid-based nanoparticles such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers. The latter materials in particular are engineered for antimicrobial agent delivery and act by encapsulation, receptor-based binding, and disruption of microbial adherence to cellular substrates. Potential strategies for the design of multifunctional antimicrobial nanocarriers, combining material chemistry and biological interface science, are also discussed.