Introduction Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, progressive, inherited ciliopathic disorder, which is incurable and frequently complicated by the development of bronchiectasis. There are few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving children and adults with PCD and thus evidence of efficacy for interventions are usually extrapolated from people with cystic fibrosis. Our planned RCT seeks to address some of these unmet needs by employing a currently prescribed (but unapproved for long-term use in PCD) macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin) and a novel mucolytic agent (erdosteine). The primary aim of our RCT is to determine whether regular oral azithromycin and erdosteine over a 12-month period reduces acute respiratory exacerbations among children and adults with PCD. Our primary hypothesis is that: people with PCD who regularly use oral azithromycin and/or erdosteine will have fewer exacerbations than those receiving the corresponding placebo medications. Our secondary aims are to determine the effect of the trial medications on PCD-specific quality-of-life (QoL) and other clinical outcomes (lung function, time-to-next exacerbation, hospitalisations) and nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and antimicrobial resistance.
Methods and analysis We are currently undertaking a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy RCT to evaluate whether 12months of azithromycin and/or erdosteine is beneficial for children and adults with PCD. We plan to recruit 104 children and adults with PCD to a parallel, 2×2 partial factorial superiority RCT at five sites across Australia. Our primary endpoint is the rate of exacerbations over 12months. Our main secondary outcomes are QoL, lung function and nasopharyngeal carriage by respiratory bacterial pathogens and their associated azithromycin resistance.